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Lecture 8

Perception lecture 8

7 Pages
139 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB51H3
Professor
Matthias Niemeier

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Under certain conditions we are very good at scene perception. How come? Why is it that
sometimes we have great difficulties;When? And what explains the difference?
We perceive things globally , dont need to analyze every single little detail, we are able to
extract salient information from photos, multiple dimensions to categorize certain aspects
of a scene. Makes sense in a semantic way. Sort scenes based on global simple process. The
details in one picture or other global features are very similar we have to use other local
strategies to tell the differences
We dont represent them at a first glance. We can use attention to zoom into details and
process them one at a time
Selective attention is a cognitive brain mechanism that enables one to process relevant
inputs, thoughts or actions while ignoring others that are less important, irrelevant or
distracting
Attention is not arousal; a global state of the brain reflecting an overall level of
responsiveness (also known as affect intensity in the context of emotions)
Early vs late selection
Early selection or early with adaptable filter system
We get sensory input and then we analyze that input , some kind of a continuum back and
forth connections then we have higher level analysis feed into executive functions finally
through motor areas we see some kind of a response human processing in a nutshell could
take the position that sensorimotor is everything humans are defined by Behaviour based
on immediate stimuli and (memory)
Late Selection even semantic processes can remain unattended/unconscious
Semantic processes can happen unattended Attentional blink Paradigm looking for 2
targets in visual display RSVP
Multi level filtering , Perceptual load
Spotlight or search light model: Attention is confined to a coherent region of space and can
move from one point to the next
Zoom lens model attention expands from fixation grows to fill whole region...shrinks to
include just cued location
Problems with zoom and spotlight models
www.notesolution.com
1)Attention shifts rather instantly
Attention can split into more than one focus not recessarily coherent region in space eg
fMRI experiment in spotlight wed expect attention covering coherent space
Fovea is represented in a very large area of V1, we can split spotlight of attention
Ie: Juggling
Possible to split attentional spotlight
Eg FmRi
Eg multiple object tracking fixate on an area, some items will flash, remember those items
blinking disappears all its move around...to track where blinking items are moving you have
to cover the entire screen, remember what the distracters and the targets are doing. We are
pretty bad with the distracters, we can do multiple object tracking
Biased competition model of attention competition: Stimuli in the visual field compete for
limited processing capacity and control for behaviour (overlap in RFs) , based on
neuroscientific data
Compete stimuli compete for limited processing capacity, overlap of visual fields you have
only 2 arms you are limited by having only 2 arms
Need biaseswithout favouring something you will not be able to behave
Bias: competition biased towards certain stimuli depending on
Bottom up as well as top down processing
Bottom up mechanisms Salience, something louder brighter is processed faster
Top down eg instructions, spatial cues, feature cues
Who is doing the biasing? We need to understand what the inside of the brain is doing?
Promotor theory of attention
1)Strict link between orienting of attention(covert attention) and programming explicit
ocular movements ( overt attention(
2)Attention is oriented to a given point when the oculomotor program for moving the
eyes to this point is ready to be executed
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Under certain conditions we are very good at scene perception. How come? Why is it that sometimes we have great difficulties;When? And what explains the difference? We perceive things globally , dont need to analyze every single little detail, we are able to extract salient information from photos, multiple dimensions to categorize certain aspects of a scene. Makes sense in a semantic way. Sort scenes based on global simple process. The details in one picture or other global features are very similar we have to use other local strategies to tell the differences We dont represent them at a first glance. We can use attention to zoom into details and process them one at a time Selective attention is a cognitive brain mechanism that enables one to process relevant inputs, thoughts or actions while ignoring others that are less important, irrelevant or distracting Attention is not arousal; a global state of the brain reflecting an overall level of responsiveness (also known as affect intensity in the context of emotions) Early vs late selection Early selection or early with adaptable filter system We get sensory input and then we analyze that input , some kind of a continuum back and forth connections then we have higher level analysis feed into executive functions finally through motor areas we see some kind of a response human processing in a nutshell could take the position that sensorimotor is everything humans are defined by Behaviour based on immediate stimuli and (memory) Late Selection even semantic processes can remain unattendedunconscious Semantic processes can happen unattended Attentional blink Paradigm looking for 2 targets in visual display RSVP Multi level filtering , Perceptual load Spotlight or search light model: Attention is confined to a coherent region of space and can move from one point to the next Zoom lens model attention expands from fixation grows to fill whole region...shrinks to include just cued location Problems with zoom and spotlight models www.notesolution.com
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