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Lecture 2

PSYB65H3 Lecture 2: HLTB02 Lecture 2.docx

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Ted Petit

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Issues in Child Health and Development
Lecture 2: Growth and Development: The Ecological Model of Child Development
- Assignment is based on the ecological model of child development
- Why are children particularly vulnerable to their environments?
oChildren are a subpopulation that is very susceptible to certain environments
oEvery child is born with a brain that is not fully developed
Environmental experiences predicate how the brain will develop over the course of the
The experiences that an individual endures helps to form neuron connections in the
oStimulation is key; opens up new pathways for neurons to connect
oIncreased nerve networks enable a child to learn better
oThe first six years of life are extremely important for brain growth
First year is the most critical period for brain development
Babies’ brain doubles in weight after year one
- “The interplay of developing brain with the environment is the driving force of development” (Irwin et al.,
- 3 main domains of development:
oPhysical development
Any development that occurs for the physical parts of the body
Development allows enhanced mobility, etc. (development serves a function)
oSocio-emotion development
Relates to the behavior of the child
Is the child attached? Did they achieve certain goals for each stage of development?
How does the child regulate their emotions?
oLanguage-cognitive development

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The ability for the child to understand certain concepts and express themselves through
oA child is not always skilled in all domains, but the goal is to achieve development in all domains
- Model of ECD (ecological child development)
oDeterminants of health
Any factors that interact to create a specific health condition
Anything that determines the health of a child
Can be factors that are biological, cultural, environmental, behavioral, etc.
oSocial determinants of health
Any factors that are economical or social in nature
oBiological embedding (ex: epigenetic)
The link between experiences and how it becomes part of an individual
Process by which early experiences becomes imprinted in the individual
Not a rule that poor early experiences will causes problems for the child later in life
Child might be exposed to some form of protective factors that reduce the
influence of poor experiences that occur early in life
oFirst sphere – the Child (Individual-level determinants)
Nutrition – the intake of nutrition at an individual level
Nutrition is vital for development
Conditions that result from nutrition-related problems
oNot enough red blood cells to transport oxygen from lungs to body cells
oAnemia can affect even nutritionally healthy children
oProlonged thiamine deficiency
oThis illness can be prevented if the child consumes lots of food that has
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