PSYB65H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Postcentral Gyrus, Occipital Lobe, Parietal Lobe

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18 Nov 2012
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Lecture 2
Cerebral Cortex
- not smooth unlike in other species => evolutionary pressure to
fit more cells
- from the top view hemispheres appear divided
=> input from the left side goes to the right cortex, input from the
right side goes to the left cortex
- hemispheres connected by corpus callosum => broad fiber
pathway
=> fibers from left connected to analogous portions on the right
across the corpus callosum
Gyri: bumps in the cortex of the brain
Fissures: large/deep sulci; 3 major ones
longitudinal separates the hemispheres
central sulcus/fissure separates frontal and parietal lobes
lateral/sylvian fissure separates temporal lobe
- subdivided into 4 lobes: frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal
- each lobe has a primary cortex and associational cortex
- primary cortex is primary receptive area => receives input for
the lobe
- associational cortex located near the primary cortex =>
computing power of the brain; processes information
=> higher order processing, newest in terms of evolution
=> in further evolved animals there’s a greater percentage of association cortex relative to primary cortex
- Brodman mapped the brain => numbered
=> know numbers for the primary cortex of each lobe
- frontal lobe: 4 & 6 are primary areas
- parietal lobe: 1, 2, 3 is the primary strip
- occipital lobe: 17 is primary area => primary receptive area for vision, info
directly from the eyes
- temporal lobe: 41 is the primary area => primary receptive area for hearing
Frontal lobe:
- starts at the most anterior portion and ends at the central
sulcus
-controls: 1. motor movement, eg move an arm => info
starts in the frontal cortex
-most anterior portion involved in 2. planning
- inhibiting inappropriate behaviour (has to do with
planning/aware of consequences)
-primary area is the primary motor strip => precentral
gyrus (in front of the central sulcus)
- Brodman’s area 4 and 6, area where cells are located that
control the muscles in the body
oStimulation of neurons directly control movement of muscles => patient’s limbs will move
oStimulating right central gyrus will cause movement on the left side of the body
- within area 4 and 6 there is a specific way of organization
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