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UTSC (30,000)
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PSYC12H3 (400)
Lecture 7

Lecture 7


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC12H3
Professor
Michael Inzlicht
Lecture
7

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Lecture 7: Experiencing Prejudice I
-barbies are white b/c maufacturer’s made them so; many kids even Black prefer white dolls (good dolls);
internalize the stereotypes about ur group....start thinking that ur group (Black) is not as good as white
groups; but research DIDN’T show this!
-What’s it like to be a target?
-ex. Mathew Sheppard, lived in Yoami, shy, 21 yrs old, young, gay....he went into a gay bar (1988) and 2
men came into the bar to rob someone...pretended to be gay...started to talk to Mathew
Sheppard.....Mathew stepped into their car....he was taken to a farm and beaten brutally, hurt critically...he
DIED of his wounds.....to make it symbolic: they tied Mathew to a fence like a chicken...HATE
CRIME....he was targeted b/c he was gay!!!!...in Canada, hate crime laws....SEVERE punishment...if
motivated by HATE....but, in USA: NOT considered a hate crime!
The Laramie Project: Laramie, Yaomi...project made after Mathew
-we need to look at Mathew’s point of view/perspective/target not just the victimizer/perpetrator
Stigma: character trait, ascribed to person that’s devalued by society, SOCIAL construction (doesn’t have
to be real), society thinks characteristic is IMPORTANT, stigmatized have “spoiled identity”...they r de-
valued and r NOT considered full human beings; are discriminated against....not liked/negative
stereotypes/negative behaviours/actions towards them....ex. Black man...no job/house in St. Louis
compared to White man...stigmatized have worse outcomes!
3 Types of stigma (Goffman):
1) Abominations of body: includes physical body; we have little-no control; ex. obese, baby born w/
cluffed pallet...can be corrected with surgery; someone who sweats a lot...problem b/c we
DEEMED it as a problem...will be judged upon/stigmatized
2) Blemishes of character: inside, personality, ex. mental illness like depression; an Olsen
twin...being anorexic..psychological order
3) Tribal marker: marker of ethnicity/race/religion...social construct..different clothes u wear, ur
skin colour ex. blacks, Muslims w/ abayas
-ex. of stigma w/ being aged 73: TRIBAL MARKER...some aspect of identity that shows wut group u
belong to...u don’t have a choice...being old is NOT a personality/personal trait..so NOT blemishes of
character...also, NOT abomination of body ....3 types don’t fit everyone 100%
-in gender inequality, it’s always WOMEN that are discriminated/stereotyped against.
-article: men r discriminated at work...lots of men are starting to complain about affirmative action...they
say women are being promoted to higher positions UNEQUALLY/unfairly.....
-men discriminated...ex. if in elevator and a woman clutches her purse, a man not getting a job at H & M,
UTSC gym has a Women-only-work out hours, men not looked upon as nurturing
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-for women, they r chosen as being nurturing; in restaurants, men get dominant waiter roles
A model of stigma reactions: Major & O’Brien, 2005: KNOW 10 elements!!!...they predict how ppl
would react to a stigmatizing situation
-a person would enter a situation with 1) Collective representations (belong to groups/society that have
certain representations about how certain groups should/can act ex. men and women interacting in Africa
and N. America, their roles). 2) Situational cues....things/aspects in environment such as how many men
and women are present (numbers), what roles they do play? Ex. a male having a female’s picture in his
office; being a minority in class...sit cue. 3) Personal Characteristics: characteristics about person...are
they very identified w/ their group, do they care about their gender/domain/feel like gender-
stigmatized)...ALL 3 of these things will contribute to someone thinking about an identity THREAT
(make threat appraisal...say I’M being a target right now based on my gender/race/religion) happened b/c
of their race/gender/ethnicity..NOT being a human being. Ex. A man that wasn’t allowed to work w/
children...Collective rep = men r dominant, women are really good teachers/nurses and not men;
Situational cue = man wants to get a job w/ an autistic family....who makes the decisions about a man
getting a nurturing job in the family..mom or dad?; Personal characteristics: is the man stigma-conscious,
does he suspect b/n situations that his gender is used against him? Does he value/care about his
degree/being around autistic children? Does he rally around men?...will lead person to say ”This is a case
of prejudice!”...person’s social identity is used to judge him
-depending on wut appraisals are made....will lead to COPING...volitional or non-volitional responses
-Non-volitional: arousal, thoughts that come to mind, emotions, implicit cognitions...they’re judging me
cuz im a man, I feel bad/hurt/injustice
-Volitional: Wut does person do to COPE w/ this? Maybe, he rationalizes it (its right) or says it’s
ridiculous...angry
-Outcomes: stress, anger, underperforming on an imp domain
Ex. How do Muslims cope at the airport? A devout, Indian Muslim man in airport...dressed
traditional....going to North America...he was VERY scared in line....he was looking down the whole
time, Look at the model: take a case/scenario...analyze it thru the lens of model of coping w/
discrimination: collective rep. Muslim man in post- 9/11 world...Muslims r associated w/ air plane-based
terrorism....situation cue: AIRPORTs, security check; Personal charc: he was wearing traditional/religious
attire...identified strongly w/ religion....Identity Threat appraisal: YES, he’s in culture w/ neg. Stereotypes
about his group/they r salient/he feels strongly about identity....he thinks he’ll b judged by his identity...he
looked scared...COPING mechanism: non-volitional: fear, arousal, heart racing; Volitional: he was
looking down, managing his behaviour, look as NON-threatening as possible..Outcome: wut happened
when he went thru security? How will he be seen by other passengers? Will he be stressed the entire time
on plane?...will affect health....airborne pathogens...SICK. He performed poorly in security
screening...cuz he’ll be nervous/stumble/no eye contact w/ security guards....guard will think the person is
hiding something.
-stigma SHOULD lead to lower self-esteem...we think....b/c my perception of myself is based on how I’m
viewed by society (Reflected Appraisal); self-fulfilling prophecy: ppl will feel bad about themselves
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