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Lecture 2

lecture 2 and 4

Course Code
Sisi Tran

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- Quality of life is how happy you are
- For hunter gatherers:
- For farmer communities there was status and there was a frame of reference
and people were able to compare their lives to others where as hunter
gatherers everyone had the same lot and had the same
- Modern day: the quality of life is never going to be good because u will
always have someone better to compare yourself too, people stop asking
about the quality of life and just work hard at a higher standard of living
- Standard of living: is material
Environment and evolutionary adaptedness
- How we evolved over time
- Homo habilis used a rock as a tool instead of a stick
- Homo erectus first species able to use and control fire
- Homo sapiens with the big frontal lobe, art, culture and religion
- What has the advancement done to our culture? Advantages and
- Communicating ideas faster, acceleration of cultural change, loss of culture
because were more isolated and independent than before, we rely on
technology more than people
- Were becoming more homogenous and independent
Other aspects of ecology
- Is the resources available and is it available to all, if resources are scarce
than it breeds competition and it leads people to be a little harsher and a
very strong ingroup and outgroup mentality u become a little paranoid
- Resource mobility: when you can move your resourses,
- Cultural isolation: the less exposure a culture they have, the more they have
a tightly held standard of social norms

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- Activity interdependence: where ur thinking of other peole and communal
- Dangerous activities: in some cultures there are occupations that are very
dangerous e.g. oil refinery those who put themselves in danger all the time
are revered and have high status bc they put themselves at risk everyday
- Population density: more people there are the more tight or homogenous
cultural norms, more people to punish you for doing something wrong unless
the population is so dense that they don’t notice you and it doesn’t matter
- Simple-complex societies; simple societies are more egalitarian bc u have
what I have, in complex societies develop stronger hierarchies
- Migrations: separate people from there in-group develops an individualistic
culture, whne your not part of the ingroup culture u have no one to punish
you for trying something new so it allows them to experiment
- Climate: cold climates tend to stay inside and develop into a culture of
isolation and
- Unpredictability of the environment: when the environment or climate is
unpredictable and u develop a culture that is much more spontaneous and
don’t plan bu
- Terrain fragmentation: when the land fragments and u see that ideas are not
trnmitted between because ppl get separated
History of a culture
Environment of culture
Maintenance systems
Adult learning environment
Child learning environment
The individual
Expressive system
All iof this is called phylogeny and is the cause of how we developed
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