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Lecture 6

Lecture 6


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC18H3
Professor
Michelle Hilscher
Lecture
6

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PSYC18 t 6
How do emotions pertain to the body?
1. Emotions and body action
o Particular emotions can cause particular emotion sequences
Allows organism to react according to the event
Reflex helps keep the organism alive
v[}À}u(oÆ]À}v
x E.g. if a snake jumps at u from behind a glass, you will still jump back
even though you know that there is a glass separating you two
o Harvey Carr
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E.g. if a snake jumps at you and yoµ}v[]v]vµooÇiµulUZvÇ}µÁ]oo
experience emotions
x Emotion is adaptive
x Emotion signals that there is a problem in responding
x And is a form of energy you rely on to solve a problem
o John B. Watson
Emotions are innate instincts
x there are particular things in the environment that are unconditioned
stimuli that result in an unconditioned response
x E.g. when a mouse comes out of its nest and sees a hawk, it runs for
shelter instinctually
x E.g. animal shows rage when in contact with a competitor
o Unconditioned emotional response
Emotions change with the hormonal system
Emotions are instinctual but we can change them through learning
x E.g. if you have a fear of snakes, it may be related to instinct, but it can
be alleviated
o Emotions help
Heuristics (short-cuts) for adaptive behaviour
x E.g. tells you when you touch a hot surface and how to respond
Tells us what is good or bad for us
Help and organism to maintain homeostasis when a particular reaction is
required or tell you when to stop an ongoing activity
o Emotions also hinder
Yerkes-Dodson Law
x When you have low arousal you perform badly
o E.g. if you are tired you do badly on a test
x When you have high arousal you perform badly
o E.g. too much mental energy, jittering to do well
x Moderate level of arousal produces optimum performance
2. Emotions and bodily feelings
o Emotions can cause how the body feels
o How the body feels can also cause emotions
o E.g. disgust makes you want to vomit, vomiting makes you feel disgusted
o Conventional
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E.g. if I see a bear, I feel fear and run away, then my heart rate increases from
running
E.g. Do you like pickles? You envision a pickle and feel you like pickles and goes
to get a pickle
o Jamesian version
XPX](/U/µvÁÇ]v]vµooÇU/(o((µoµ/[uµvv]vP
away
E.g. Do you like pickles? You envision a pickle and think about the last pickle he
ate and interpret that action which determines how he feels about pickles
o Grogorio Maranon & W.B Cannon
What happens when people are injected with adrenaline?
x Adrenaline activates the sympathetic nervous system
x 2 different response
1. First degree reaction
o Aware of what is going on in body
o Also aware of how it could underlie emotions
o E.g. I have bodily sensations that are related to being upset, but
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The tÁ}(o]vP}v[uZ
2. Second degree reaction
o Before receiving the shot, they went through a trauma in life
that would tie in their emotions into the bodily reactions
o They had a psychological motif
o Cause them to misunderstand the bodily arousal as emotions
E.g. my body is related to upset feelings so I must be
upset
Two-factor theory of emotion
x Emotions have a bodily component and a psychological component
x They come together to result in a full-blown emotion
o Most likely to happen if the psychological component precedes
the bodily arousal
o vv}v[}((]]o]]µ}(:u
James say : autonomic specificity for emotion
1. There are particular patterns of bodily reactions that links to particular
emotions
x Other patterns for other emotions
x Can
2. Asdf
3. Asdf
Cannon says:
1. Different emotions result from the same bodily arousals
2. Heart rate changes from neutral state to happy state is tiny
x So how can bodily arousals discriminate if changes are so small
3. Emotions are very fast but autonomic changes are too slow
4. Autonomic changes for non-emotiona experiences
5. We are often insensitive to autonomic nervous system changes
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