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30 Oct 2010
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PSYC18 t 6
How do emotions pertain to the body?
1. Emotions and body action
o Particular emotions can cause particular emotion sequences
๎‚ƒ Allows organism to react according to the event
๎‚ƒ Reflex helps keep the organism alive
๎‚ƒ ๎€’๎€‚v[๎‚š๎€ƒ}ร€๎€ž๎‚Œ๎€}u๎€ž๎€ƒ๎€‚๎€ƒ๎‚Œ๎€ž(o๎€žร†]ร€๎€ž๎€ƒ๎‚Œ๎€ž๎‚๎‚‰}v๎‚๎€ž
x E.g. if a snake jumps at u from behind a glass, you will still jump back
even though you know that there is a glass separating you two
o Harvey Carr
๎‚ƒ ๎€œu}๎‚š]}v๎‚๎€ƒZ๎€‚๎‚‰๎‚‰๎€žv๎€ƒรZ๎€žv๎€ƒร‡}ยต๎€ƒ๎€š}v[๎‚š๎€ƒZ๎€‚ร€๎€ž๎€ƒ๎€‚v๎€ƒ]v๎‚๎‚š]v๎€๎‚š๎€ƒ๎‚šZ๎€‚๎‚š๎€ƒ๎‚š๎€žoo๎‚๎€ƒร‡}ยต๎€ƒรZ๎€‚๎‚š๎€ƒ๎‚š}๎€ƒ๎€š}
๎‚ƒ E.g. if a snake jumps at you and yoยต๎€ƒ๎€š}v[๎‚š๎€ƒ๎€ƒ]v๎‚๎‚š]v๎€๎‚šยต๎€‚ooร‡๎€ƒiยตu๎‚‰๎€ƒ๎€๎€‚๎€lU๎€ƒ๎‚šZ๎€žv๎€ƒร‡}ยต๎€ƒร]oo๎€ƒ
experience emotions
x Emotion is adaptive
x Emotion signals that there is a problem in responding
x And is a form of energy you rely on to solve a problem
o John B. Watson
๎‚ƒ Emotions are innate instincts
x there are particular things in the environment that are unconditioned
stimuli that result in an unconditioned response
x E.g. when a mouse comes out of its nest and sees a hawk, it runs for
shelter instinctually
x E.g. animal shows rage when in contact with a competitor
o Unconditioned emotional response
๎‚ƒ Emotions change with the hormonal system
๎‚ƒ Emotions are instinctual but we can change them through learning
x E.g. if you have a fear of snakes, it may be related to instinct, but it can
be alleviated
o Emotions help
๎‚ƒ Heuristics (short-cuts) for adaptive behaviour
x E.g. tells you when you touch a hot surface and how to respond
๎‚ƒ Tells us what is good or bad for us
๎‚ƒ Help and organism to maintain homeostasis when a particular reaction is
required or tell you when to stop an ongoing activity
o Emotions also hinder
๎‚ƒ Yerkes-Dodson Law
x When you have low arousal you perform badly
o E.g. if you are tired you do badly on a test
x When you have high arousal you perform badly
o E.g. too much mental energy, jittering to do well
x Moderate level of arousal produces optimum performance
2. Emotions and bodily feelings
o Emotions can cause how the body feels
o How the body feels can also cause emotions
o E.g. disgust makes you want to vomit, vomiting makes you feel disgusted
o Conventional
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๎‚ƒ E.g. if I see a bear, I feel fear and run away, then my heart rate increases from
running
๎‚ƒ E.g. Do you like pickles? You envision a pickle and feel you like pickles and goes
to get a pickle
o Jamesian version
๎‚ƒ ๎€œXPX๎€ƒ](๎€ƒ/๎€ƒ๎‚๎€ž๎€ž๎€ƒ๎€‚๎€ƒ๎€๎€ž๎€‚๎‚ŒU๎€ƒ/๎€ƒ๎‚Œยตv๎€ƒ๎€‚ร๎€‚ร‡๎€ƒ]v๎‚๎‚š]v๎€๎‚šยต๎€‚ooร‡U๎€ƒ/๎€ƒ(๎€ž๎€žo๎€ƒ(๎€ž๎€‚๎‚Œ(ยตo๎€ƒ๎€๎€ž๎€๎€‚ยต๎‚๎€ž๎€ƒ/[u๎€ƒ๎‚Œยตvv]vP๎€ƒ
away
๎‚ƒ E.g. Do you like pickles? You envision a pickle and think about the last pickle he
ate and interpret that action which determines how he feels about pickles
o Grogorio Maranon & W.B Cannon
๎‚ƒ What happens when people are injected with adrenaline?
x Adrenaline activates the sympathetic nervous system
x 2 different response
1. First degree reaction
o Aware of what is going on in body
o Also aware of how it could underlie emotions
o E.g. I have bodily sensations that are related to being upset, but
/๎€ƒ๎€š}v[๎‚š๎€ƒ(๎€ž๎€žo๎€ƒยต๎‚‰๎‚๎€ž๎‚š
๎‚ƒ The tร}๎€ƒ(๎€ž๎€žo]vP๎‚๎€ƒ๎€š}v[๎‚š๎€ƒu๎€‚๎‚š๎€Z
2. Second degree reaction
o Before receiving the shot, they went through a trauma in life
that would tie in their emotions into the bodily reactions
o They had a psychological motif
o Cause them to misunderstand the bodily arousal as emotions
๎‚ƒ E.g. my body is related to upset feelings so I must be
upset
๎‚ƒ Two-factor theory of emotion
x Emotions have a bodily component and a psychological component
x They come together to result in a full-blown emotion
o Most likely to happen if the psychological component precedes
the bodily arousal
o ๎€’๎€‚vv}v[๎‚๎€ƒ}((]๎€]๎€‚o๎€ƒ๎€๎‚Œ]๎‚š]๎‚‹ยต๎€ž๎€ƒ}(๎€ƒ:๎€‚u๎€ž๎‚
๎‚ƒ James say : autonomic specificity for emotion
1. There are particular patterns of bodily reactions that links to particular
emotions
x Other patterns for other emotions
x Can
2. Asdf
3. Asdf
๎‚ƒ Cannon says:
1. Different emotions result from the same bodily arousals
2. Heart rate changes from neutral state to happy state is tiny
x So how can bodily arousals discriminate if changes are so small
3. Emotions are very fast but autonomic changes are too slow
4. Autonomic changes for non-emotiona experiences
5. We are often insensitive to autonomic nervous system changes
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Document Summary

How do emotions pertain to the body: emotions and body action, particular emotions can cause particular emotion sequences. S allows organism to react according to the event. N e. g. if a snake jumps at u from behind a glass, you will still jump back even though you know that there is a glass separating you two: harvey carr. S e. g. if a snake jumps at you and yol lz l. N emotion signals that there is a problem in responding. N and is a form of energy you rely on to solve a problem. N there are particular things in the environment that are unconditioned stimuli that result in an unconditioned response. N e. g. when a mouse comes out of its nest and sees a hawk, it runs for shelter instinctually. N e. g. animal shows rage when in contact with a competitor: unconditioned emotional response. S emotions are instinctual but we can change them through learning.

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