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Lecture 4

PSYC18H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Determinative, Humanistic Psychology, Juan Luis Vives

Course Code
Gerald Cupchik

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Psychology of Emotion
Lecture 4
31st January, 2013
Goethe’s Approach
Vorstellungsarten- the ways of conceiving and representing things was bound t the question of
Darstellung (presentation) the question of presentation is a question of language and rhetoric
As a poet, Goethe recognized with unmatched clarity the role of language in science, its symbolic and
inalienably metaphorical character.
There is a need for language in science, it is empirical, proof showing something, and demonstrating
something. No one outside the inner circle can understand you.
Analogy between science and art. Both strive to rescue phenomena from the obscurity of accident by
raising them to significant eminenve and clarity, no single portrayal of phenomena rembraces the whole
truth…. While some relationships migh be enhanced and clarigied, other withdraw from view.
Phenomena are events of the world, we want to prevent to from obscurities.
Just as art always present itself as complete in every single artwork, so should science always show itself
whole in every single thing it treats.
In science we want to have the complete understanding, that means talking to people about things, and
narrowing things down.
Pure experiences ought to live at the foundation of all natural science
The event of the phenomenon constitutes the real subject of inquiry
As much as possible the theory must wait upon the phenomena
For Goethe, the first duty of a scientist is to explore the associations and connections of one
phenomenon to another, without the intervention of a theory or hypothesis rather than try from the
outset to give proof of a theory
Natural history is the careful observation and description of phenomena in the world. Look at
phenomena and observe it and derive a theory.

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Theory is a formal account of the underlying process. First you observe and then you theorize, or else
you’re making a theory about nothing.
A science founded in a pluralistic spirit requires two virtues above all: patienct and irony. With irony one
may not be overwedded ti the supposed perfection of the truths one holds. With patience one may not
rashly reject as impossible alternative one violently disagrees with.
When we see our sense in an ironic sense we are able to accept humility. We need to as scientist realize
that we make choices, some are good and some aren’t. We treat ourselves as process not objects. If you
get a bad grade, you have to tell yourself that you can change, and improve your work.
If we treat our world with patience we are very careful about our work, and how we feel about it.
Wemust not exclude anyof the human powers from scientific activity. The abyss of intuition, a sure view
of the present, mathematical depth, physical precision, sublimity of reason, sharpness, of intellect agile,
yearning fantasy, loving joy in the sensuous. Nothing can be foregone if there is to be a lively, fruitful,
seizing of the moment, through which alone a work of art, whatever its content may be, can arise.
In nature nothing happens that does not stand in a relationship with the whole.
How are the findings of the isolated facts in an experiment related to the whole phenomenon?
You can welcome fantasy but you have to balance it with theory. If you want to be a good scientist you
have to be out there in the world. A phenomena is a whole experience, divorces, failure love, are all
examples of phenomena, but you want to know it from the inside out.
Goethe is able to represent apparently simply facts as different moments of a single dynamic
phenomenon..moments that correspond to varying condition of the basic experiment.
Morphology, has to do with how organisms evolve over time
With these facts we can do a re-synthesis to reconstruct the original event and experience of the
phenomenon and view it again with comprehension.
The idea is that things change and we want to grasp the idea of how things change, we want to observe
Comprehnesion takes the form of a seeing embedded in the fullness of phenomenoa.
Goethe’s proximate goal of this method is to achieve naturgemasses Dastellung, a presentation in
accordance with nature.. which must correspond to the fundamental elements of the phenomenon in
question such as the continuities, associations, contrasts and wholes.
The initial work- collection examinination and organization of phenomena- must be done with the
greatest of care, industry, rigor so that when wit and imagination are set loose they do not distort the
phenomena at will.
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