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PSYC18H3 (300)

PSYC18H3 Lecture Notes - Group Psychotherapy, Makes Me Happy, Eudaimonia

Course Code
G Cupchik

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Chapter 14 – Psychotherapy, Consciousness and Well-being
Psychological therapies and the emotions
- Emotions can take over our lives, make us do things are at the center of many religious
practices, etc.
- Human consciousness has struggled to find a right relation with emotions
- In the East: tenor of emotional life is thought to be best modulated by practices such as
meditation and non-attachment to worldly things, mindfulness being developed into
psychological therapy in the West
- In the West: transformation of self was of interest to Greeks and to Hebrews, derived from
Egyptian sources. Incorporated into Christianity. Emotions are part of the obscuring veil to
the soul, first to be recognized and owned, then transcended
oConsidering Roman Catholic practice of concession: 1. confession, 2. emotion of
shame, 3. Restitution of wrong, 4. Amendment of life. Never done alone because
church fathers understood the eyes of at least one other person to be essential part
of inducing shame
oIn many societies, comparable practices can be classed broadly as psychotherapeutic
Any one of us can fall out of the right relation with ourselves, with our families
and communities. Signs of wrong relations can include strong and disturbed
emotions. Societal practices may involve manipulating and interpreting
particular states of consciousness. May involve going to sequestered place,
meditation, drugs, etc. Typically meetings with others such as mentors, gurus,
shamans, etc. The aim is healing (Greek term meaning: therapy)
- Basic idea of psychoanalytic therapy
oTherapist tries to work with client to make sense of emotion-based symptoms, in
contrast to medical approach of trying directly to relieve the suffering and anguish of
such symptoms
oSigmund Freud’s first form of psychotherapy focused on emotionally traumatic events
in a patient’s earlier life (Katharina case: recalling trauma, enabling it to be conscious,
allowing emotions associated to be expressed, thus freeing patient from trauma’s
continuing harmful effects)
oFreud first thought that hysteria was caused by childhood sexual abuse but later
thought that it was due to inner conflict (both feeling sexually attracted but inhibited
by society)
oHistorical Figures (Sigmund Freud)
oFrom beginning, psychoanalysis attracted both adherents and detractors
Detractors argued that psychoanalysis was less a therapeutic procedure and
more a matter for police

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Chapter 14 – Psychotherapy, Consciousness and Well-being
Freud’s reputation is being questioned in controversies surrounding cases in
which people report having recovered memories of childhood sexual-emotional
traumas and abuse that perhaps have been repressed or perhaps have been
suggested by therapists.
Freud proposed therapy of listening carefully: with “evenly hovering attention”
Therapy’s focus on the emotions
- Many different kinds of psychological therapy (over 400 kinds), many clinical psychologists
and psychiatrists describe themselves as eclectic meaning they incorporate selected
aspects from different variants in practice
- Most therapies involve close relationship with therapist and involve explicit emotions
- Therapy is an interaction with another person in which, as patient or client, one can discover
some properties of one’s emotion schemas most typically anxiety, anger and despair and
can change how these schemas operate
- Psychoanalysis: unconscious schemas of relating
oDistinctive feature of psychoanalytic therapy is the recognition of transference of
client to the therapist
oIdea of transference discussed by Freud about Ida Bauer (Dora)’s case where he filled
in gaps in her story
oTransference is the manifestation of emotion schemas, mental models that embody
ways of relating to others that have become habitual. Best thought of as emotional
attitudes toward significant others, from the past, such as parents. In Dora’s case, she
did not trust her father and then did not trust Freud.
oSusan Anderson and Serena Chen (2002): use the term relational self for the beliefs
and emotions of selfhood that derive from earlier relationships. Asked participants to
write 14 sentences of description of self in relation with two significant others (one for
whom they had positive feelings and one for whom they had negative feelings).
Experimenters looked to see how far these relational traits from the past might affect
a relationship with a person the participant met for the first time. When showed
description of a person similar to those they didn’t like, they made a facial expression
of negativity and vice versa with those that they liked.
oPsychoanalytic therapy is designed to recognize tranferences and to bring them to
consciousness. Transference occurs in almost every consultation with a physician as
we find ourselves hoping they will look after us. Occurs everywhere, teachers-
students, romantic relationships, parent-child, etc.
oIdea of psychoanalytic therapy is that our relationships are so fundamental to every
aspect of life
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