PSYC21H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Albert Bandura, Social Change, Genital Stage

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Published on 21 Apr 2013
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC21H3
Professor
Week 1 Readings
Chapter 1: Introduction Theories of social development
Social development: A brief History
- Child labour laws were not enacted till the 1800s
- Study of children development began with Charles Darwin
Paved the way for the study of emotion
- G. Stanley Hall used questionnaires to document children’s activities, feelings, and
attitudes
- John B. Watson argued that conditioning and learning were the processes by which
social and emotional behaviour are acquired and modified
- Freud claimed that social development was the product of how adults handled
children’s basic drives, such as the infants drive to suck
Critical questions about social development
1) How do biological and environmental influences affect social development?
Nature- nurture issue
Nature: biology is destiny and the course of development is predetermined by
genetic factors which guide the natural maturation (predetermined process of
growth that unfolds over a period of time) of complex social skills and abilities
Nurture: environment genetic factors put no restriction on the ways that
environmental events shape the course of children’s development
Organizing the environment could train any infant to become an athlete etc
Both influence social development
2) What role do children play in their own development?
Past believed that children were passive organisms who were shaped by external
factors
Now, contemporary psychs believe that children are more active agents who
control , and direct the course of their own development
Over years children engage in interchanges called transactional: interchanges
between social partners such as a parent and child across time that result in
modifications of social behaviour of each
3) What is the appropriate unit for studying social development?
Social dyads: pair of social partners such as friends, parent and child or marital
partners
Larger units given attention called social triads such as mother-father-child or a trio
of friends
Social groups studied
4) Is development continuous or discontinuous?
Continuous process: each change building on earlier experiences in an orderly way
Development as smooth and gradual
Discontinuous process: discrete steps and organizational behaviour as qualitatively
different at each new stage or plateau
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Skills learned in each phase are different than every other phase (Piaget and
Freud)
Some developmental psychs suggest that our judgement of continuity or
discontinuity depends on the power of the lens we use when we look at changes
across time
Looking over a longer period you see distinct stages
Looking more closely you see abrupt shifts and a lot of variability
5) Is social behaviour the result of the situation or the child?
Dual contribution of both personality and situational factors
Children seek out situations in which they can show case their personalities
6) Is social development universal across cultures?
Most psychs recognize universal aspects of development as well as the importance
of considering cultural contexts
7) How does social development vary across historical eras?
Historical changes play a part in shaping children’s development social lives of
children and their families are affected by specific historic events such as the
Vietnam War etc
8) Is social development related to other developmental domains?
Emotion important in the domain of social development as well as cognitive
development
Language and motor domain important as well
9) How important are mothers for children’s social development?
Mothers may be the most important in children’s lives but other ppl play an
important role as well
Social development is embedded in a social matrix in which many individuals guide
and support children’s progress toward healthy social relationships and social skills
10) Is there a single pathway of social development?
Varied routes of development
Multifinality: divergence of developmental paths in which 2 individuals start out
similarly but end at very different points
Equifinality: convergence of developmental paths in which children follow very
different paths to reach the same developmental point
11) What influences how we judge children’s social behaviour?
Three factors (characteristics of the child, adult and the context) can influence social
judgements and the labelling of social behaviours
12) Do developmental psychologists “own” social development?
Diversely disciplinary perspectives
Theoretical perspectives on social development (TABLE 1.1)
- Theories serve 2 functions:
1. Help organize and integrate existing info into coherent and interesting accounts of
children’s development
2. Lead to testable hypotheses and predictions about children’s behaviour
- Psychodynamic perspective
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Freud’s theory
Psychological growth governed by unconscious biologically based drives and
instincts such as sex, aggression, and hunger and is shaped by encounters with
the environment, especially fam members
Id: instinctual drives that operate on the basis of the pleasure principle
Ego: rational component of the personality, which tries to satisfy needs through
appropriate, socially accepted behaviours
Superego: personality component that is the repository of the child’s
internalization of parental pr societal values, morals, and roles
Development as a discontinuous process, organized in 5 distinct stages
1) Oral stage: infants preoccupied with activities such as eating, sucking etc
2) Anal stage: (3rd year) Children forced to learn to postpone the pleasure of
expelling
3) Phallic stage: (5th/6th year) sexually curiosity is aroused and preoccupation
with sexual anatomy and the pleasures of genital stimulation alert them to
the differences in sexual anatomy of the sexes
o Boys become enmeshed with the Oeidipus complex: boys become
attracted to their mother and jealous of their father resolves when
boys give up their sexual feelings for their mothers and identify with
their fathers
o Electra complex: girls blame their mother for their lack of penis and
focus their sexual feelings on their father when they finally realize
that they cannot possess their father as a mate, girls transfer their
feelings to other males
4) Latency stage: sexual drives are temporarily submerged (6yrs puberty)
children avoid relationships and become involved with peers of the same sex
5) Genital stage: sexual drives remerge, but this time more correctly directed to
peers
Erikson theory
Psychosocial theory: each stage of development depends on accomplishing a
psychological task in interactions with the social environment
Development is discontinuous
Stages:
1) Development of basic trust: by learning to trust caregivers and parents they
learn to trust their environments and themselves
2) Learn self-control and develop autonomy: they develop shame and self-
doubt if they remain worried on their continuing dependency and their
inability to live up to adult expectations
3) During the ply age (3-6 yrs) children struggle to develop initiative and to
master their environment, but at the same time fell guilty of they are too
aggressive
4) 6-12 yrs children develop a sense of industry, largely by succeeding at school
period of constant social comparison
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Document Summary

Chapter 1: introduction theories of social development. Child labour laws were not enacted till the 1800s. Study of children development began with charles darwin. Paved the way for the study of emotion. G. stanley hall used questionnaires to document children"s activities, feelings, and attitudes. John b. watson argued that conditioning and learning were the processes by which social and emotional behaviour are acquired and modified. Freud claimed that social development was the product of how adults handled children"s basic drives, such as the infants drive to suck. Nature: biology is destiny and the course of development is predetermined by genetic factors which guide the natural maturation (predetermined process of growth that unfolds over a period of time) of complex social skills and abilities. Nurture: environment genetic factors put no restriction on the ways that environmental events shape the course of children"s development. Organizing the environment could train any infant to become an athlete etc.

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