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Lecture 6

PSYC23H3 Lecture 6: Infant Stress, Learning and Memory
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC23H3
Professor
David Haley

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PSYC56: Music Cognition Clara Rebello
PSYC56 Lecture 6: Musical Structures II Time & Rhythm
Tonality is one of the most widely studied musical structures
o Ulike pithes, it’s ore of a oerall struture of pithes
o Tonality: arrangement of pitches and/or chords within of a musical work in a hierarchy
of perceived relations, stabilities, attractions and directionality
o One note functions as a reference point for all of the tones, known as the tonic or tonal
center
Other pitches have well-defined relation to tonal center called tonal function
o Tonality is very objective
Provided that study participant has grown up being exposed to Western music
In Western music, we have two tonalities: major and minor
o Major tonalities sound nice
Do re mi fa so la ti do
C, E, and G are probably the most stable notes
Non-diatoi toes do’t elog to C sales
Most notes in a composition would belong in levels 1-3; Composer may add a
few level 4 notes to make the song sound more interesting
Major tonalities are always the same
Psychologically very stable
o Minor tonalities
Harmonic Levels 1- are diatoi; Leel  is’t shroi to the sale degree
levels above it
Brings up the B flat to B
Natural
Melodic
Tonality can be transposed to begin to any of the 12 chromatic pitches (any of the 12 pitches
can be the tonic)
o There are 12 major and 12 harmonic minor tonalities
Tonality can vary in terms of how related they are to one another
o Relation between tonalities can be assessed in terms of overlap between notes of
diatoi set
o Two tonalities that share lots of notes/tones Very close relationship
o To toalities that do’t share otes/toes Not related
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PSYC56: Music Cognition Clara Rebello
Circle of fifths
o Proides a isual idea of hih sales hae lose relatioships ad hih oes do’t
o C and F# do’t share a otes
Existence of multiple tonalities raises a variety of questions:
o What is the relation of one tonality to another? Can we measure relatedness? How do
we represent relatedness? Are there key maps?
Key distance an important issue in music-theoretic descriptions of tonal music
because of key modulations Modulations help prevent the music from going
stale
Musical composition start in a home key, will move to several other keys
(modulate) and then usually return to home key
Myth: People wait for the song to go back to its home key
Reality: People actually forget the home key 10 seconds after hearing it
o Questions regarding perception of tonality: How do we find our sense of key? Are we
accurate in sense of key? What models do we have for determining key?
Krumhansl and Kessler (1982)
o Used the probe tone method to test the psychological existence of tonality and its
hierarchal structure
o They played participants various tonal contexts,
followed by a single probe note (this was done
for all 12 notes)
Look back at the major and minor scale
tables
o Participants had to rate (on a scale of 1 7)
how well the note fit in with the prior context
o Found that C has the highest rate
G has the second highest rate
The non-diatonic notes from both
major and minor scales all had the
lowest rate
These results sho that partiipats’
probe tones mirrored the hierarchy of
the diatonic scale
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PSYC56: Music Cognition Clara Rebello
o They were able to do this for all 24 keys to create standardized key profiles
Key profiles
o You can see that the C major scale profile and F# major profile are essentially the
complete opposite of each other
o Ad o the irle of fifths, the’re o opposite sides of the irle
o Krumhansl and Kessler were also able to map out the distances between keys
And this map matched musi theorists’ ke aps
The key maps shows how composers think when they come up with their
compositions
Tonality can also be used to test harmonic priming
o Priming: A general psychological phenomenon, where exposure to a stimulus influences
a response to a subsequent stimulus
o First demonstrated using tonality by Bharucha and Stoekig (1987)
Bharucha and Stoekig (1987)
o Had a C major context
o In every trial, they had participants listen to a context
Then respond to a target (C major or F# minor), which was either related or not
related to the context
o Participants were responding faster and more accurately to the targets related to the
context relative to unrelated targets
o Ongoing debate in this literature Is this due to sensory priming or cognitive priming?
Sensory priming: Overlapping harmonic components are providing participants
with an advantage in determining which chords are related
Cognitive priming: Participants are using their internalized psychological
representations of tonality to determine which chords are related
Rhythm: The pattern of note durations in a melody
o Rhythm consists of the relative durations of tones (the relative timing of the intervals
between note onsets)
o Tepo does’t hage rhth
o If you speed up or slow down Happy Birthday, the relative proportions remain the same
The long notes are still longer than the short ones and by the same percentage
Meter: The timing foundation on which a given pattern of rhythmic durations is understood
o At the same time that you hear the rhythm of Happy Birthday, you also feel a sense of
pulse or beat, and you might hear those pulses in recurring groups of three
This recurring pattern of pulses or beats is the meter
o Meter organizes perceived series of beats into regularly repeating patterns of stressed
vs. unstressed beats
Researchers have taken stressed beats and how we interpret tonality
o Adds perceptual salience
Tactus: The most natural rate at which a listener might tap or clap their hands to a musical piece
o Generally synonymous with the beat
o Subjective
o Individuals may disagree about the rate of the tactus
Because they extract different perceptual groupings from the musical signal
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Description
PSYC56: Music Cognition Clara Rebello PSYC56 Lecture 6: Musical Structures II Time & Rhythm Tonality is one of the most widely studied musical structures o Unlike pitches, its more of an overall structure of pitches o Tonality: arrangement of pitches and/or chords within of a musical work in a hierarchy of perceived relations, stabilities, attractions and directionality o One note functions as a reference point for all of the tones, known as the tonic or tonal center Other pitches have well-defined relation to tonal center called tonal function o Tonality is very objective Provided that study participant has grown up being exposed to Western music In Western music, we have two tonalities: major and minor o Major tonalities sound nice Do re mi fa so la ti do C, E, and G are probably the most stable notes Non-diatonic tones dont belong to C scales Most notes in a composition would belong in levels 1-3; Composer may add a few level 4 notes to make the song sound more interesting Major tonalities are always the same Psychologically very stable o Minor tonalities Harmonic Levels 1-3 are diatonic; Level 4 isnt synchronic to the scale degree levels above it Brings up the B flat to B Natural Melodic Tonality can be transposed to begin to any of the 12 chromatic pitches (any of the 12 pitches can be the tonic) o There are 12 major and 12 harmonic minor tonalities Tonality can vary in terms of how related they are to one another o Relation between tonalities can be assessed in terms of overlap between notes of diatonic set o Two tonalities that share lots of notes/tones Very close relationship o Two tonalities that dont share notes/tones Not related PSYC56: Music Cognition Clara Rebello Circle of fifths o Provides a visual idea of which scales have close relationships and which ones dont o C and F# dont share any notes Existence of multiple tonalities raises a variety of questions: o What is the relation of one tonality to another? Can we measure relatedness? How do we represent relatedness? Are there key maps? Key distance an important issue in music-theoretic descriptions of tonal music because of key modulations Modulations help prevent the music from going stale Musical composition start in a home key, will move to several other keys (modulate) and then usually return to home key Myth: People wait for the song to go back to its home key Reality: People actually forget the home key 10 seconds after hearing it o Questions regarding perception of tonality: How do we find our sense of key? Are we accurate in sense of key? What models do we have for determining key? Krumhansl and Kessler (1982) o Used the probe tone method to test the psychological existence of tonality and its hierarchal structure o They played participants various tonal contexts, followed by a single probe note (this was done for all 12 notes) Look back at the major and minor scale tables o Participants had to rate (on a scale of 1 7) how well the note fit in with the prior context o Found that C has the highest rate G has the second highest rate The non-diatonic notes from both major and minor scales all had the lowest rate These results show that participants probe tones mirrored the hierarchy of the diatonic scalePSYC56: Music Cognition Clara Rebello o They were able to do this for all 24 keys to create standardized key profiles Key profiles o You can see that the C major scale profile and F# major profile are essentially the complete opposite of each other o And on the circle of fifths, theyre on opposite sides of the circle o Krumhansl and Kessler were also able to map out the distances between keys And this map matched music theorists key maps The key maps shows how composers think when they come up with their compositions Tonality can also be used to test harmonic priming o Priming: A general psychological phenomenon, where exposure to a stimulus influences a response to a subsequent stimulus o First demonstrated using tonality by Bharucha and Stoekig (1987) Bharucha and Stoekig (1987) o Had a C major context o In every trial, they had participants listen to a context Then respond to a target (C major or F# minor), which was either related or not related to the context o Participants were responding faster and more accurately to the targets related to the context relative to unrelated targets o Ongoing debate in this literature Is this due to sensory priming or cognitive priming? Sensory priming: Overlapping harmonic components are providing participants
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