LECTURE 4 C35 (detailed) (recordings)
ProfessorMarc A Fournier
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To both rese psy and to lay ppl alike it is easy and compel and to see or think in tautological terms, the q
of whether personality types really exist how many types there are and how reliably we can find these
types in a pop has a focus q of inqu and so in today we’ll be concerned with relatively novel research.
we’ll be revisi the topic of personality structure but considering an alternative interpretation of meaning
of what the structure conveys. So the term wéven been using as the meaning that we’ve been using so
far today with ref to ther term structure has been what’s typically called in resea a VAR center appr. To
understanding personality structure. The VAR center appr. Adopts the approach taken thus far, where
by structure we mean the pattern of relationship, covar that occurs among persona attri within a pop.
The goal is determ what attrib can co-occur with other attri as we look at how ind can differ from one
another. To identify those clusters of attributes give them names and then see what they create. The var
is a search for pers traits. The goals is determine how many traits there are along which we differ, where
traits refer to clusters of attributes . the standard approach we’ve taken to identifying the persona struct
has been fac ana. S1LA2. The variables in q are personality attributes, the underlying factors are
personality traits. A spreadsheet ; each row is a subject, columns are variables that are measured. The
goal in analyzing factor analysis is to find those columns that have similar patterns of numbers across
subjects. The variables or columns that resemble each other get clustered together in FA. And they
become the factors that we identify as personality traits. The goal in the standard FA is to identify which
column of #s have the most similarity to each other. And they get clustered together to form an
underlying factor. And when the var are personality data the factors are personality traits. This
approaches what we view as the nomothetic approach to psy science. Nomothetic approach meaning ..
idiographic approach means the search for the laws that ..single individual functions..an alternative
approach to psy science generally speaking therefore adopts the person centred approach. The PC
approach is concerned with understanding the configuration …s1b1.
The PC approach is an alteration on the standard FA approach. They use inverse FA which is similar to FA
except that participants in var are transposed. So rather than having subj along the rows and var along
the columns instead you have the var along the rows and the subj along the columns. The inverse FA
procedure is now identifying (not the clusters of variables) clusters of subj that go together bc of the
patterns of #s that show across var. the resulting output is not the underlying factors of traits but the
clusters of ppl in your sample and by clusters – we mean personality types. Types refer to clusters of
individuals who share a common configuration/profile across a number of variables. The var centred or
nomothetic approach is concerned with personality traits. The PA is concerned with personality types.
The longitudinal study by block has the goal to identify how types of ind differ in their experience over
the course of their life. block decided to measure 2 personality constructs that they derived from the
psychoanalytic literature. The 2 var are EC and ER.
EC – 2a2.
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Individuals differ in how regularly they withhold their impulses. Some people are impulsive and act on
every impulse they have. Others are inhibited and more constrained. So EC captures the indiv differ. In
the expr. And restraints of impuls. The q with EC is are you expressive or tend to the various internal
pushes and pulls that you experience. To what extent do you attend to the impulses and act them out.
Those who are high on EC restrain themselves from acting out or acting on their impulses. ER is a
moderator of EC ; defn. refers to our own ability to change the level of EC we exercise.
ER is a separate dimension of EC. EC is what you typically do. Do you typically restrain or act on your
impulses. ER is how able are you to act differently from what you typically do. So someone who is high
on ER they will change how much E control they will exercise in a given situation. The primary dimension
is EC and the qualifying dimension is ER. – qualify how rigidly you stick to whatever EC you have.
Block developed a very interesting method to assess personality generally –ec and er specifically.
He developed a technology called the Q-sort. – a standardized list of 100 statements that were meant to
representative of the various kinds of behaviors that ppl show. So 100 statements that were sampled to
broadly cover the domains of activity, behaviors, and feelings and thoughts that people show. So these
100 statements are taken and sorted into bins – 9 bins. Which range from most similar to most
dissimilar to the person you’re describing – either on you or the person you’re asked to describe.
There is a requirement on the number of statements that you need to put in each bin – you have to put
5, 9, 12, 16, 18, 16, 12, 8, 5….they form a quasi normal distribution. You’re not allowed to put more than
5 in the most descriptive column and 5 in the most undescriptive column. Meant to capture the idea
that attributes are typically normally distributed.
In block’s original research he imagined there are 5 personality types of similar patterns of assortments
of items to bins. Only 3 of these types remain of interest to researchers today. These 3 are uncontrolled,
overcontrolled, and resilience.
These prototypes ; the 3 were meant to capture ; defn.
How are these prototypes defined or different from each other?
The UC – grp of indiv. Who score low on ER and low on EC . don’t take exercise a lot of restraint on
impulses and they’re rigid ; can’t hold act together
The OC – grp of individuals – score low ER, and high EC.
What differentiates them and similar ; ER and EC..
The resilient – high ER and moderate EC.
Typically inclined to restrain their impulses, their disposition is to not act on every impulse they have but
they’re flexible; high on ER..they can change or fluctuate with the EC as a function of changing demands
from the environment.
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