PSYC37 TEXTBOOK NOTES.docx

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PSYC37 TEXTBOOK NOTES
CHAPTER 1
The baby’s first test conducted immediately after birth is the Apgar test to
assess HR, respiration, muscle tone, reflex irritability and colour
Psychometrician: specialist in psych or education who develops and
evaluates psych tests
Test is a standardized procedure for sampling behaviour and describing it
with categories or scores
Most test have the following features: standardized procedure, behaviour
sample, scores or categories, norms or standards and predication of nontest
behaviour
Criterion-referenced tests: tests that measure what a person can do rather
than comparing results to the performance levels of others
Test items do not have to resemble the behaviours that the test is attempting
to predict
implicit assumption of the psychometric viewpoint is that tests measure
individual differences in traits or characteristics that exist in some vague
sense of the world. Everyone is assumed to possess the trait being measured,
but in different amounts
error: observed score=true score +error
norm: a summary of test results for a large and representative group of
subjects. Norm group is referred to as the standardization sample
ultimate purpose of a test is to predict additional behaviours, other than
those directly sampled by the test
norm-referenced test: the performance of each examinee is interpreted in
reference to a relevant standardization sample
criterion-referenced test: the objective is to determine where the examinee
stands with respect to very tightly defined educational objectives. Can be
meaningfully interpreted without reference to norms
assessment: appraising or estimating the magnitude of one or more
attributes in a person. Refers to an entire process of compiling info about a
person and using it to make inferences about characteristics and to predict
behaviour. Examiner must compare and combine data from different sources
tests represent only one source of info used in the assessment process
group tests: large paper-pencil measures suitable to the testings of large
groups of persons at the same time
individual tests: instruments that by their design and purpose must be
administered one on one. The examine can gauge the level of motivation of
the subject and assess the relevance of other factors on the test results
Table 1.1; pg 7
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Intelligence test were designed to sample a broad assortment of skills in
order to estimate the individual’s general intellectual level
Intelligence test refers to a test that yields an overall summary score based
on results from a heterogeneous sample of items
Aptitude tests measure one or more clearly defined and relatively
homogenous segments of ability. Often used to predict success in an
occupation, training course or further education
Achievement tests measure a person’s degree of learning, success or
accomplishment in a subject matter. Used to determine how much material
the subject has absorbed
Creativity test assess a subject’s ability to produce new ideas, insights, or
artistic creations that are accepted as being of social aesthetic or scientific
value. Emphasize novelty and originality
Personality tests measure the traits, qualities or behaviours that determine a
person’s individuality; helps predict future behaviour
Interest inventories measure an individual’s preference for certain activities
or topics and thereby help determine occupational choice
Behaviour is best understood in terms of clearly defined characteristics such
as frequency, duration, antecendents and consequences
Neuropsychological tests are used in the assessment of persons with known
or suspected brain dysfunction
Five uses of tests: classification, diagnosis and treatment planning, self-
knowledge, program evaluation and research
Classification: assigning a person to one category rather than another
Placement: sorting of persons into different programs appropriate to their
needs or skills
Screening: quick and simple tests or procedures to identify persons who
might have special characteristics or needs. Sometimes result in many
misclassifications, therefore examiners are advised to do follow-up testing
Certification: have a pass/fail quality
Diagnosis: determining the nature and source of a person’s abnormal
behaviour, and classifying the behaviour pattern within an accepted
diagnostic system
Diagnosis is a precursor to remediation or treatment of personal distress or
impaired performance
A proper diagnosis conveys info about strengths, weaknesses, etiology and
best choices for treatment
Factors that influence the soundness of testing: the manner of
administration, the characteristics of the tester, the context of the testing, the
motivation and experience of the examinee and the method of scoring
Standardized testing procedures are normally essential, there are instances
in which flexibility in procedures is desirable or even necessary. Eg.
Examining person with disabilities
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Essential component of individual testing is that examiners must be
intimately familiar with the materials and directions before administration
begins
Failure to notice a hearing loss is a problem with young examinees, who are
usually poor informants about their disability
In persons with mild hearing loss, its essential for the examiner to face the
subject squarely, speak loudly and repeat instructions slowly
Those with visual disabilities attend well to verbally presented material
The verbal responses of subjects with speech impairment are difficult to
decipher. Owing to the failed comprehension of examiner, subjects may
receive less credit than is due
People with cerebral palsy or other motor impairments may be penalized by
timed performance tests
Psychologists assume that any adult can administer group tests, so long as he
or she has the requisite manual
The greatest source of error in group test administration is incorrect timing
of tests that require a time limit. Requires foresightful scheduling
Another error is lack of the directions to the examinees. Noise also needs to
be controlled. Also error in the administration of a group test is failure to
explain when and if examinees should guess
Examiners shouldn’t give supplementary advise on guessing- this leads away
from standardization
Most test develops incorporate a correction for guessing based on
established principles of probability. Eg. Odds of being right on m/c test is ¼
while being wrong the odds are 3/4
A skilled writer can make the correct alternative counterintuitive and the
wrong alternatives are persuasively appealing. An educated guess for these
are almost always wrong
Rapport: a comfortable, warm atmosphere that serves to motivate examines
and elicit cooperation
A tester who fails to establish rapport may cause a subject to react with
anxiety, passive-aggressive noncooperation, or open hostility. Especially
important when testing children
Cold testers will obtain less cooperation from their subjects, resulting in
reduced performance on ability tests or distorted, defensive results on
personality tests
Overly solicitous testers may go in the opposite direction, giving subtle cues
to correct answers
Sex, experience, and race of the examiner make little, if any difference
Mistrustful blacks do poorly when tested by white examiners
Test anxiety: phenomenological, physiological, and behavioural responses
that accompany concern about possible failure on a test
Anxiety is negatively correlated with school achievement, aptitude test
scores and measures of intelligence
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Document Summary

The baby"s first test conducted immediately after birth is the apgar test to assess hr, respiration, muscle tone, reflex irritability and colour. Psychometrician: specialist in psych or education who develops and evaluates psych tests. Test is a standardized procedure for sampling behaviour and describing it with categories or scores. Most test have the following features: standardized procedure, behaviour sample, scores or categories, norms or standards and predication of nontest behaviour. Criterion-referenced tests: tests that measure what a person can do rather than comparing results to the performance levels of others. Everyone is assumed to possess the trait being measured, but in different amounts. Norm: a summary of test results for a large and representative group of subjects. Norm group is referred to as the standardization sample. Ultimate purpose of a test is to predict additional behaviours, other than those directly sampled by the test. Norm-referenced test: the performance of each examinee is interpreted in reference to a relevant standardization sample.

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