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Steve Joordens

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Roshan Singh 101907 Mr. Joordens PSYA01H3 Chapter 4 Notes The brain contains anywhere between 10 billion and 100 billion nerve cells and about as many helper cells that take care of support and housekeeping functions. Donald Hebb considered how individual nerve cells are organized into larger units. He proposed specific principles of organization by which these units were structurally organized and suggested how they could generate higher processes of the brain such as memory, thought, and decision making. Since Hebbs work, neuroscientists have learned that the nerve cells are actually organized in modules i.e. clusters of nerve cells that communicate with each other. Particular modules have particular functions just as transistors, resistors and capacitors in a computer chip do. The brain controls behaviour, processes and retains information we receive from the environment and regulates the bodys physiological processes. The nervous system consists of 2 divisions: Central nervous system The brain and the spinal cord - Spinal cord A long, thin collection of nerve cells attached to the base of the brain and running length of the spinal column. It contains a circuit of nerve cells that control simple reflexes such as pulling away from hot objects. - Nerve A bundle of nerve fibres that transmit information between the central nervous system and the bodys sense organs, muscles, and glands. Peripheral nervous system The cranial and spinal nerves; that part of the nervous system peripheral to the brain and spinal cord. The human brain has 3 major parts: Brain stem The stem of the brain, including the medulla, pons, and mid-brain. It is one of the most primitive regions of the brain and its functions are basic ones such as primarily control of physiological functions and automatic behaviours. Usually amphibians brain only have brain stem and the cerebellum. Cerebral hemisphere The largest part of the brain; covered by the cerebral cortex and containing parts of the brain that evolved most recently. Cerebellum A pair of hemispheres resembling the cerebral hemispheres but much smaller and lying beneath and in back of them; controls posture and movements, especially rapid ones. Vertebra One of the bones that encase the spinal cord and constitute the vertebral column. Meninges The 3 layered set of membranes that enclose the brain and spinal cord.
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