Class Notes (810,025)
Canada (493,922)
Psychology (7,623)
PSYA01H3 (829)

Chapter notes

15 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Roshan Singh 112807 Mr. Joordens PSYA01H3 Chapter 6 Notes Differences between sources of information in the environment have important consequences for the way sensory systems process that information. In other words, a difference in the world we see and the world we hear. Visionary senses require one to pick up frames quicker than auditory senses require distinguishing sound waves. Because they are all attuned to different aspects of our world, the senses contribute to the richness of experience. Audition (speech) is really important for social behaviour. Vision provides information about distant events as well as the sense of smell. The other senses deal with events occurring immediately nearby such as the taste of our favourite food and the touch of a loved one. When we feel objects our experience is active instead of passive, as we try to feel the shape, texture and other details of that object. Information from specialized organs in the inner ear and receptors in muscles and joints is produced by our own movements. This information helps us to maintain our balance as we engage in our everyday activities. Experience is studied by distinguishing between sensation and perception. Sensation The detection of the elementary properties of a stimulus. Elementary properties are brightness, colour, warmth and sweetness. Perception The detection of the more complex properties of a stimulus (animate and inanimate), including its location and nature; involves learning. Psychologists used to believe that perceptions depended heavily on learning whereas pure sensations involved inborn physiological mechanisms. But, neither behavioural nor physiological have been able to establish a boundary between sensation and perception. Our sensory mechanisms include: Visual system Auditory system Gustatory system Olfactory system Somatosensory system Traditionally we are known to have 5 senses, but in fact we have a few more. The somatosensory system for example has separate components that can detect touch, warmth, coolness, vibration, physical damage, head tilt, head movement, limb movement, and muscular contraction and so on. Calling these components senses is based what we want to base our terminology on. www.notesolution.comRoshan Singh 112807 Mr. Joordens PSYA01H3 Chapter 6 Notes The sense receptors the brain has detects temperature and salt concentration of the blood and is useless to inform the brain about the outside world. Sense organs outside the brain are able to do the job as they detect stimuli provided by light, sound, odour, taste or mechanical contact with the environment. Information about these stimuli is transmitted to the brain through neural impulses. (action potentials carried by axons in sensory nerves) Transduction The conversion of physical stimuli into changes in the activity of receptor cells of sensory organs. Each sense organ responds to a particular form of energy given off by the environment: Light (radiant energy) Eye Sound (mechanical energy) Ear Tilt and rotation of head (mechanical energy) Vestibular system Taste (Recognition of molecular shape) Tongue Odour (Recognition of molecular shape) Nose Touch, Temperate, Vibration (mechanical energy, thermal energy, mechanical energy) Skin, internal organs Pain, Stretch (Chemical reaction, mechanical energy) - Muscle Receptor cell A neuron that directly responds to a physical stimulus, such as light, vibrations or aromatic molecules. Different stimuli cannot be translated into different types of action potentials. The information must be somehow be coded in the activity of axons carrying information from the sense organs to the brain. A code is a system of symbols or signals representing information. If we know the rules, we are able to convert a message from one medium to another without losing any information. But, we do not know the rules used by our sensory organs. The 2 general forms of coding used though are: Anatomical coding A means by which the nervous system represents information; different features are coded by the activity of different neurons. Example: Rubbing your eyes. It not only distinguishes among the sense modalities but also among the stimuli of the same sense modality. Temporal coding A means by which the nervous system represents information; different features are coded by the pattern of activity of neurons. The simplest form of temporal code is rate. Example: Light touching skin, the degree of touching determines the rate of firing.
More Less

Related notes for PSYA01H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.