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Lecture 7

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Lecture 7 * Operational Definition -> Using a procedure or process to define something specific  i.e. self-esteem manipulated to be when the experimenter drops the slides and yells at the participant and therein affects his/her self-esteem * Validity -> Refers to whether one believes that a given operational definition really reflects the theoretical entity it is meant to represent  i.e. questioning whether or not the slides dropping and the person yelling at you lowers your self- esteem is questioning validity  i.e. going into an exam and knowing and understanding the material but doing bad on it and blaming the prof for making a bad exam is questioning validity  To determine validity, you can do manipulation check * Asking participant at the end of the study, did you think that I blamed it all on you or not, and hopefully want the participant to blame themselves so the validity of the study increases  Convergence from use of other studies * Other studies do similar experiments from the use of other operational definitions increases validity because if another experiment is proven valid, then this one can be proven valid as well * Reliability -> Refers to how accurately the study can measure the dependent variable  i.e. elastic band used to measure height not very reliable as there is a lot of variance in that  Can be measured and quantified -> When babies see colour, doing experiments on when they can
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