September 17, 2012
Psychology A01: Lecture 2.1: Finding Answers Begins by Finding Questions
Theories & hypotheses:
Begins with a theory – somebody’s explanation meant to explain things they
“Good” theories lead to hypotheses – predictions that can be empirically teste
in a way that might prove them to be incorrect (i.e. falsifiable)
Freud’s theories of human behaviour, and religious theories of existence are
often criticized for being unfalsifiable and therefore impossible to test.
Freud says our mind has:
o “it” has desires that need to be satisfied, clashes with social culture.
o Has “the super ego”, the image you have in your mind of the best
version of you
o Has “the ego” considers what the “it” what it wants, without offending
the super ego.
Where does one find these theories?
Observational study – Jane Goodall – lived with chimps.
Her goal – to see natural chimp behaviour
Pros and cons of Naturalistic Observation:
o The chimps could kill her – they can induce a lot of pain
o The area, without security, lived on her own
o Her presence changes the situation – the chimps wouldn’t behave
o She would behave like them – roll around in crap (smell) , act like a
chimp, be submissive (not a threat), eat what they ate.
o She was able to get to pro-social behaviour – grooming one another-
they accepted her as one of their own.
o She found the way they lo