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Lecture 5

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Steve Joordens

September 24 , 2012 Psychology A01: Lecture 2.2: Finding Answers Begins by Finding Questions  Correlational Studies – through observation, links and relationships are seen between variables o Eye gaze and social rank in chimps. o Perceived attractiveness related to height? – Women taller than women – attractive? o Older – attractive, younger – awkward, ugly.  Scatter plot – the taller you are the heavier you are.  Correlation 0 – x changes, y doesn’t  +1 correlation – x and y increases by 1  -1 correlation – x and y decreases by 1 o More romantic movies, less excited about own love life  Movies are idealistic but real life isn’t that way  Maybe watching it, makes your love life look bad  Maybe the poor romantic relationship causing the watching of movies o Is the movies causing it or s the person of blame  The in-between – tall thinks their ugly, short thinks there hot. 0.3 0.6 correlation  Correlation doesn’t equal causation The Third Variable Issue  Variable x – pre-existing level of health and fitness  Variable b - days absent due to illness  Variable a – decision to participate in fitness training program  Taller people make more money o Wealthier = better nutrition/gene family = taller o Tallness symbolizes leadership capability o Wealthier the family = better the job  Those who go to the gym, don’t call in sick a lot o Some people who are relatively healthy, more likely to go to the gym = no sick o Unhealthy less likely to workout, but more likely to be sick  Are film crews causing global warming or is the global warming causing the film crews  Shark example o Sharks live as long as they live because they don’t experiment, they eat fish – picky eaters Operational Definitions  What makes it tricky is the need to make the connection between abstract theoretical ideas and concrete variables that can be manipulated or measured o Prejudicial behavior emerges when self-esteem is lowest (poor economy) o How does one define self-esteem? o Prejudice? o When economy is poor, increases in prejudicial behaviour. Why?  Because when people are unemployed, cant support family, low self-esteem, frustrated, anger – portrayed on an out-group (anybody from some group that’s outside of your group - cultural, races, languages, programs, music, religion).  We don’t understand out-groups, we fear them; we unleash our negativity on an out-group.  When our self-esteem takes a hit, we are more prejudicial.  Operationally defining – taking a vague psychological theory, to independent variable (manipulate) and dependent variable (measure), concrete experimental. o Define it so that you could do something with it  Compare people with good and bad self-esteem o Half people are told they did well on the test and others did badly. o They made the subject feel like an idiot that were blamed for knocking over the cards displayed more prejudicial behaviour towards French Canadians.  Is it prejudicial or anger driving
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