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University of Toronto Scarborough

Roshan Singh 012008 Mr. Joordens PSYA01H3 Chapter 11 Notes Intelligence The general term used to refer to a persons ability to learn and remember information, to recognize concepts and their relations, and to apply the information to their own behaviour in an adaptive way. Recently, psychologists have pointed out that any definition of intelligence depends on cultural judgements. 3 dominant approaches to the study of intelligence: Differential approach An approach to the study of intelligence that involves the creation of tests that identify and measure individual differences in peoples knowledge and abilities to solve problems. Particularly those who use skills important in the classroom. These tests are important to all of us because they are used to screen applicants to schools and candidates for jobs. Developmental approach An approach to the study of intelligence based on the way children learn to perceive, manipulate, and think about the world. The most influential proponent of this approach was the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget. Information processing approach An approach to the study of intelligence that focuses on the types of skills people use to think and to solve problems. Just because IQ is a single score does not itself mean that intelligence is a single general characteristic. AQ example of whether after looking at the score we will be able to decide who would be a better skier, basketball player etc. 3 theories of intelligence: 2-factor theory, information processing theory and neuropsychological theory. Charles Spearman (1927) proposed that a persons performance on a test of intellectual ability is determined by 2 factors: gFactor According to Spearman, a factor of intelligence that is common to all intellectual tasks; includes apprehension of experience, eduction of relations, and eduction of correlates. sFactor According to Spearman, a factor of intelligence that is specific to a particular task. He defined gfactor as comprising three qualitative principles of cognition. Apprehension of experience refers to people`s ability to perceive and understand what they experience. Eduction of relations refers to the ability to perceive the relation. Eduction of correlates refers to the ability to apply a rule inferred from one case to a similar case. The correlations among various tests of intellectual ability usually range from .30 to .70. Thus, a person`s score on a particular test depends on 2 things: the person`s specific ability on the particular test and his or her level of the g factor, or general reasoning ability.
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