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PSYA02H3 (928)

Psychology - Session 12

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

● social psychology ● peer pressure ○ the need to belong ● humans are social creatures ● conformity ○ tendency for humans to conform when in groups ● Milgram study ○ considered to be one of the most shocking psychological experiments ■ unethical due to psychological harm ○ to what extent will people follow a leader ● confederates ○ acting just like the subject ○ often aiding a deception ○ in cahoots with the experimenter ● Why are you listening to the authority figure? ○ What is the psychology that makes people go along with it? ● people are suddenly willing and able to do things that they’d never do if it were just them ○ somebody to blame for their actions ○ off-load the ethical decision making ■ somebody is making the ethical decisions ● combination of the Milgram experiment and the Zimbardo notion ○ people will largely do it ■ (whatever is it that the authority figure ‘commands’) ○ Zimbardo and the Abu Ghraib incident ■ had an issue with the fact that only two (or three) people were charged ■ claimed that because of what we know in psychology ● stated that everybody was responsible for creating the situation ● shame to only call the two (or three) people “bad apples” ● critical points ○ transfer of responsibility ○ fusion of responsibility ● research on prejudice ○ friction between groups of people ○ ingroup ■ people with whom an individual shares a common identity ● ex. sexual or cultural identity ■ people cluster in groups where they share things in common ● ex. skin colour ● ex. preferences for music genre ■ individuals are in more than one ingroup ○ outgroup ■ people perceived as different from an individual’s ingroup ■ individuals are surrounded by outgroups ○ ingroup bias ■ individual’s tendency to
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