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Chapter 11 psya02 note.docx

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Marc A Fournier

Chapter 11Intelligence and ThinkingTheories of intelligenceThere are three dominant approaches to the study of intelligence The differential approachfavours the development of tests that identify and measure individual differences in peoples abilities to solve problemsparticulary those that use skills important in the classroom For example these tests ask people to define words explain proverbs solve arithmetic problems doscover similarities in shapes and patterns and answer questions about a passage of proseThe Developmental approachstudies the ways in which children learn to perceive manipulate and think about the world The most influential proponent of this approach was the swiss psychologist Jean Piaget The Information processing approachfocuses on the types of skills people use to think and to solve various types of problemsTheories of IntelligenceSpearmans TwoFactor TheoryThe g factor which is a general factor and the s factor which is a factor specific to particular test Spearman didnt call his g factor intelligence he considered the term too vague He defined the g factor as comprising three qualitative principles of cognition apprehension of experience education of relations and education of correlates A common task on tests of intellectual abilitiessolving analogiesrequires all three principlesEvidence from factor anaylsisLouis Thursone Seven factors which he labeled Verbal comprehension verbal fluency number spatial visualization memory reasoning and perceptual speedCattel performed just such a seond order factor analysis and found not one but two major factors called these factors fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligenceFluid intelligence is defined by relatively culture free tasks such as those that measure the patterns in a repeating series of items Crystallized intelligence is defined by tasks that require people to have and the kind of information learned in schools
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