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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Chapter 13 – Motivation and Emotion - motivation: a general term for a group of phenomena that affect the nature, strength, and persistence of an individual’s behaviour What is Motivation? - proactive or forward looking o enforced to perform a behaviour to avoid an aversive event - reactive or response to conditions at the time Biological Needs - regulatory behaviours: a behaviours that tends to bring physiological conditions back to normal,. thus RESTORING the condition of homeostasis o ex/ eating, drinking, shivering, putting on a warm coat - homeostasis: process of detection and correction, which maintains physiological systems at their optimum level o deficits or imbalances motivate us because it causes us to perform an action that brings us back to the optimum level - system variable o the characteristic to be regulated - set point o the optimum level of the system variable - detector o monitors the value olf the system variable - correctional mechanism o restores the system variable to the set point - DRIVE REDUCTION HYPOTHESIS o earliest to explain nature of motivation and reinforcement o having a lack of biological needs is unpleasant o the physiological changes associated with going w/out food for several hours = hunger o hunger = a drive  energizes an organism’s behaviour to obtain food based on behaviours that were executed before to obtain food o act of eating?  reduces hunger - INCORRECT THEORY BECAUSE o 1) no way to measure “drive” o 2) drive = ride a roller coaster. wanna ride again? MORE drive. drive won’t end Physiology of Reinforcement - reinforcement syste4m  neurons that RELEASE dopamine as their transmitter substance o THUS, all reinforcing stimuli appear to trigger the release of dopamine in the brain Optimum-Level Theory - avoidance of exciting stimuli motivates us o want nothing more than some peace and quiet - when an individual’s arousal level is too high, less stimulation is reinforcing - when an individual’s arousal level is too low, more stimulation is desired - diversive exploration: a response to understimulation that INCREASES the diversity of the stimuli the organism tries to come into contact with - specific exploration: a response to OVERstimulation of a specific needs that leads to the needed item, thereby DECREASING the organism’s drive level - any kind of activity eventually produces satiety where something that was ONCE reinforcing is now BOTHERSOME Perseverance - highly motivated individuals persevere - perseverance: the tendency to continue to perform a behaviour even when it is not being reinforced - other people just give up as opposed to trying harder - Effects of Intermittent Reinforcement - intermittent training ensures that a reinforced response occurs only after a series of unreinforced responses, resistance to extinction is greatly enhanced - succeeding after failure causes the individual to resist the effects of subsequent failure - experiencing a TOUGH experience may teach us to persevere and overcome future difficulties or may teach us to give up and cry - groups in society who are not prospering blame other groups for their misfortune = scapegoating INSTRINSIC: - Overjustification Hypothesis YOU WANT - providing intrinsic rewards for behaviour that is already maintained by intrinsic rewards may TO DO IT WEAKEN target behaviour EXSTRINSIC: - when given EXTRINSIC rewards for behaviours that were previously rewarded intrinsically o this creates a loss of motivation SOMEONE WANTS YOU - shift to extrinsic motivation and extrinsic rewards disappear?  person will lose interest in their activity TO DO IT - free-play period for children. children were given rewards for drawing other children were UNEXPECTADLY given rewards for drawing. o children who were expectedly given rewards for drying were less motivated to draw during free-time o children who were unexpectedly given rewards for drawing were MORE motivated to draw during free time o even when they got an unexpected prize, there was no shift from intrinsic to extrinsic
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