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University of Toronto Scarborough
Anna Nagy

Chapter 14 - Generalizing Results 1 GENERALIZING TO OTHER POPULATIONS OF RESEARCH PARTICIPANTS - even though researcher randomly assignment participants to conditions..rarely are they picked fr the general population o most available: college student (specifically freshmen and sophomores in intro psychology course to satisfy a general education requirement) participants may also be fr particular unicollege, be mostly F or M, certain culture College Students - Smart found: college student were studied in over 70% of the articles published btw 1962-64 in the Journal of Experimental Psychology and Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology; sim result for 80-85 in a variety - Problem: such studies use highly restricted population (sopfreshmentioned above) o They tend to be very young and possesscharac of later adolescence Sense of self-identity is still developing, socpol attitudes still in flux, peer approval need, unstable peer relationships; also intelligent, high cog skill etc. People in general not necesshave all these characteristics - Also seeunrepresentation in animals---i.e. most animal research relies on white rats (cheap, easy, lab adaptive) Volunteers - many intro classes require students to volunteers - Volunteers differ from nonvolunteers o Volunteers tend to be more highly educated, more in need of approval and more social; also tend to have higher SES - Also diff kinds of ppl volunteer for diff kinds of experimentsppl drawn to diff studies o Evidence that the title of study influences who signs up Gender Considerations - sometimes researchers use either M or F (or a disprop ratio) due to convenience or which is better suited for procedure - thus you may get gender bias (incl confounding gender w age or job status and selected response measures which are gender-stereotyped) - Need to be aware of gender diff and try incl both! - Imp to recog the ways both genders differently interpret IV manipulations or questions asked in questionnaire Locale - One locale differs from others: uni, community college, cities, towns, diff geographical regions etc. Generalization as a Statistical Interaction - problem of generalization can be thought of as an interaction in a factorial design (ch. 10) o interaction occurs when relationship btw vars exists under 1 condition but not another or when the nature of relationship is diff is one condition than in another (i.e. gender may influence vars)
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