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Anna Nagy

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Chapter 3: Milgrams Obedience Experiment: Stanley Milgram conducted a series of experiments to study the phenomenon of obedience to an authority figure the experiment is the one with the teacher administering shocks to the learner (it was staged) and it revealed that even when the learner was screaming in pain, 65% of the participants still continued to administer shocks because they were told to by the scientists. The Belmont Report: Current ethical guidelines for both behavioural and medical researchers have their origins in The Belmont Report: Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protections of Human Subjects of Research. This report defined the principles and applications that have guided more detailed regulations and the American Psychological Association Ethics Code. The three basic ethical principles are beneficence, respect for persons (autonomy), and justice. The associated applications of these principles are assessment of risks and benefits, informed consent, and selection of subjects. Assessment of Risks and Benefits: The principle of beneficence in the Belmont Report refers to the need for research to maximize benefits and minimize any possible harmful effects of participation. In decisions about the ethics of research, we must calculate potential risks and benefits that are likely to result; this is called a risk-benefit analysis. Ethical principles require asking whether the research procedures have minimized risk to participants. The potential risks to participants include such factors as psychological or physical harm and loss of confidentiality. In addition, the cost of not conducting the study if in fact the proposed procedure is the only way to collect potentially valuable data can be considered. The benefits include direct benefits to the participants, such as an educational benefit, acquisition of a new skill, or treatment for a psychological or medical problem. There may also be material benefits such as monetary payment, some sort of a gift, or even the possibility of winning a prize in a raffle. Other less tangible benefits include the satisfaction gained through being part of the research findings (e.g.,
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