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PSYB01H3 (260)
Anna Nagy (133)
Lecture 2

PSYB01 - Lecture 2 Readings.docx

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Anna Nagy

Lecture #2 Readings: Chapter 2 + Chapter 3 + Chapter 1 (Tri-Council Policy) Chapter #2 Notes: Where to Start: Pages: 16-23 Hypotheses and Predictions:  Hypothesis – a statement about something that may be true, a tentative idea of how two variables may relate to each other  Prediction – researcher translates a hypothesis into something more specific  When results of a study are consistent with a prediction the hypothesis is only supported, not proven  Falsifiability – the data can show that a hypothesis is false, if in fact it is false  Hypotheses are scientifically meaningful ONLY if they can be falsified *using objective data, ie. It can be measured Sources of Ideas:  5 sources of ideas: common assumptions, observation of the world around us, practical problems, theories and past research a) Questioning Common Assumptions:  Researchers can question common sense beliefs within a culture b) Observation of the World around us:  Roger Buehler: people underestimate the length of time to complete a project when the task involves multiple steps  Serendipity – sometimes the most interesting discoveries are the result of accident or sheer luck  Classical conditioning was accidentally discovered in researching digestive systems of dogs c) Practical Problems:  Can have immediate applications d) Theories:  Much research tests theories of behaviour  Theory – consists of a system of logical ideas proposed to explain a particular phenomenon and its relationship to other phenomena  Theories serve 2 important functions: o Organize and explain a variety of specific facts or descriptions of behaviour o Generate new knowledge by focusing our thinking so that we notice new aspects of behaviour  Theories guide our observations of the world (more general and abstract than hypotheses)  Theory generates many hypotheses  predictions  Theory can be modified to account for new data  Parsimony – the least complex theory is most desirable, because it is easiest to entirely falsify e) Past Research:  As you do research you may find inconsistencies that you might want to look into  What you know about one area can often be applied to another area Anatomy of an Empirical Research Article:  Peer review – editor and others in the field review the article to see if it can be published  Most papers are rejected  Primary sources – research reports  Research reports that are reporting the results of studies usually have 5 major sections: o An abstract that summarizes the entire report o And introductions that explains the problem under investigation and hypothesis Lecture #2 Readings: Chapter 2 + Chapter 3 + Chapter 1 (Tri-Council Policy) o Methods – describes in exact detail the procedures of the study o Results – presents specific finding o Discussion – concludes the article  After the 5 major sections, references section lists all the sources cited in the article  Formatting rules found in the Publication Manual of the APA Abstract:  Summary of the research report (no more than 120 words in length)  Information about the hypothesis, procedure, broad patterns of results Introduction:  Researcher outlines the problem that has been investigated  Past research theories outlined as well as a formal hypothesis Method:  Provides information about how exactly the study was conducted, including details necessary to replicate the experiment  Often divided up into sections  Do not use participants to describe people use the word “subjects”  Publication Manual of the APA recommends using participants when describing humans who take part in psychological research  Other terms: respondents – ind who take part in survey research, informants – people who help researcher understand the dynamics of particular cultural or organizational settings/who report on the personality characteristics of other people Results:  Researcher presents findings – usually in 3 ways: o Description in narrative o Results described in statistical language o Material often depicted in tables/graphs Discussion:  Researcher reviews the research from various perspectives Finding Existing Research: The Nature of Journals:  Too many to read Conducting a PsychINFO Search:  APA’s searchable database = PsycINFO which includes coverage of journal publications from the 1800’s to present  You will obtain a list of abstracts related to your topic  The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) field can be helpful in finding full-text sources of the article  You can also use the Boolean operators: AND, OR, NOT  Parentheses are used to separate diff parts of your search specification and are useful when your search becomes more complicated  OR is used to expand a search that is too narrow  NOT operation is used when you anticipate that the search criteria will be met by some irrelevant abstracts  Wildcard asterisk (*) stands for any set of letters in a word Web of Science:  Can be accessed directly through the Web of Knowledge database  Allows you to search through citation information and includes several disciplines of science  Most important feature is the ability to use the cited reference search Lecture #2 Readings: Chapter 2 + Chapter 3 + Chapter 1 (Tri-Council Policy) Review Articles:  Literature review (if they use narrative techniques) – review and summarize the research in a particular area  Meta-analysis (statistical techniques – review and summarize research in a particular area  Review articles will have abstracts, intro, discussion and references  Journal Psychological Bulletin publishes review articles in various topic areas in psychology  Annual Review of Psychology publishes articles that summarize recent developments in various areas of psychology Other Electronic Search Resources:  Other major databases: Academic Search Complete, Sociological Abstracts, MEDLINE, PubMed and ERIC  PsycExtra Newsstand Complete and Access World News allows you to search general media resources such as newspapers Broader Internet Searches:  Most important for your research will be peer-reviewed articles from PscychINFO  You can improves the quality of your search by learning: o The diff in the way search engines find and store info o Advanced search rules including how to make searches more narrow and how to find exact phrases o Ways to critically evaluate the quality of the information that you find  Google developed a search engine for scholarly articles  Primary disadvantage: doesn’t allow you to narrow your search as well as PsycINFO o Also that the full text of primary source articles is sometimes unavailable unless you pay Wikipedia:  Not considered a credible source for academic research Evaluating Web Information:  It is essential to critically evaluate what you find  Some of the important things to look for: o Is the site associated with a major educational institution or research organization? o Is the information provided on the people who are responsible for the site? Can you check their credentials? o Is the information current? o Do link from the site lead to legitimate organizations? Review Questions: 1) What is a hypothesis? What is the difference between a hypothesis and a prediction? 2) What are 5 different methods for generating ideas for research? Provide an example for each. Lecture #2 Readings: Chapter 2 + Chapter 3 + Chapter 1 (Tri-Council Policy) 3) What are the 2 functions of a theory? What is the diff b/w a theory and a hypothesis? 4) What information does the researcher communicate in each of the sections of a research article? 5) Describe the difference in the way that past research is found when you use PsycINFO versus the “cited reference search” method of the Web of Science. Chapter #3 Notes: Ethical Research: Were Milgram’s Obedience Experiments Ethical?  Confederate – accomplice  Posted an ad in the paper for males, explained experiment as being a teacher/learner experiment  Drew for positions, which was rigged for experimenter to always be the learner  Participant shown the shock machine and explained the 3 levels of shocks  Every time the learner made a mistake matching a pair of word the teacher would have to deliver a shock  Participants wanted to quit but experimenter encouraged them to continue  65% delivered shocks up until 450 volts  Studied showed that participants would obey authority… but was the study ethical? Ethical Research in Canada: The Tri-Council and Its Policy Statement:  Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans  Tri-Council = 3 federally funded research facilities – Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), the Social Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (SSHRC) and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Council of Canada (NSERC)  1998: Tri-Council published the Tri-Council Policy Statement (TCPS) – became the first standard Canadian Ethics Code to guide all research involving humans  2010: published first major revision of the TCPS Lecture #2 Readings: Chapter 2 + Chapter 3 + Chapter 1 (Tri-Council Policy)  All institutions who receive funding from the Tri-Council must have a Research Ethics
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