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Lecture 7

PSYB10 Lecture 7 Summary

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Elizabeth Page- Gould

INITIAL ATTRACTION (CHAPTER 9) - Proximity o Propinquity effect  The more we see and interact with other people, the more likely they are to become our friends - Familiarity o Mere-exposure effect  The more you see a neutral object, the more you like it  From mildly negative to positive  Does not apply if the object has negative qualities - Similarity or complementarity? o Complementarity  Are we more attracted to people who are out opposites? o Similarity  Are we more attracted to people who are like us?  An important predictor of friendship formation and romantic relationship formation - Reciprocal liking o We like people better who like us o Can come about because of self-fulfilling prophecy o Less true for people with low self-esteem or negative self-concept  Tend to be skeptical about others actually liking them  Do not necessarily reciprocate liking o Subtle liking cues  Eye contact  Leaning in  Attentive listening  Mimicry - Attractiveness o What is attractive?  Attractiveness in men and women  Men o Large eyes, big smile, strong cheekbones, large chin  Women o Large eyes, big smile, prominent cheekbones, narrow cheeks, high eyebrows, large pupils  Symmetry  Symmetry matters!  Averageness  Composite faces are more attractive than individual faces  Composite faces are more familiar and more prototypical  Composite faces are more symmetrical  Composites of people rated highly attractive are more attractive than other composites  Babyfacedness  Features o Large eyes, round face, round nose  Baby-faced people o More persuasive o Perceived to be more trustworthy o Evoke liking and care giving behaviours  Cultural influence  A wide range of cultures agree on what is attractive in the human face  Some faces are just better looking than others, regardless of cultural background o Attractiveness and liking  This seems that we might somewhat hard-wired to perceive attractiveness  Babies stare at attractive faces longer  There is a fair amount of cross-cultural consistency in attractiveness judgements  Beautifulness-is-good stereotype (schema)  The assumptions we make about attractive individuals o They possess a host of desirable traits o The tendency to associate attractiveness with goodness  Beauty promotes attraction  Beauty creates a “halo effect” o Occurs when making judgements about social competence o More sociable, extraverted, popular o More sexual, happy, friendly  Cultural shifts in attractiveness  Physical attractiveness stereotyping occurs cross-culturally  Occurs more in individualistic societies, which place greater weight on qualities of the individual, including his or her attractiveness o Traits in US, Canada, Korea  sociable, friendly, well-adjusted, happy, intelligent o Traits in US, Canada  strong, dominant, assertive o Traits in Korea  sensitive, generous, warm, trustworthy, empathic o Attractiveness and relationships  Matching hypothesis  We seek partners that are of similar attractiveness to us  Similarity in attractiveness predicts o Satisfaction in relationship o Longevity of relationship o Lower break-up rate - Misattribution of arousal o The process whereby people make mistaken inferences about what is causing them to feel the way they do  Due to difficulty in pinpointing the precise causes of your arousal o When people are aroused by crossing a bridge, they often misattribute the arousal to the wrong source, such as attraction to the beautiful woman with a survey  Some people think the arousal is a result of attraction to the beautiful woman - Scarcity o If potential mates are not plentiful, we may shift our standards of attractiveness o When options are scarce, people are willing to lower their standards CLOSE RELATIONSHIPS (CHAPTER 9) - Evolutionary perspectives on relationships o Evolutionary fitness  The potential to pass on your genes  Ability to survive mating years  Ability to maximize the number of offspring that survive their mating years o Biological bases of relationships  Polygamy  Several members of one sex mating with one individual of another sex  Polygyny o Several females mate with one male (90% of mammals)  Polyandry o Several males mate with one female  Reproductive investment (e.g., seahorse, penguin)  The investment of time, resources, and risk involved in having each child  Tends to be seen in polygamous animals  The sex with the most reproductive cost is choosier o Usually the female, but not always o Except penguins, which have equivalent reproductive investment  The sex with the least reproductive costs o Should want more partners o Will be in competition for mates more often o Displays greater physical variation  Sexual dimorphism (e.g., ape, cheetah)  Pronounced difference in the size or body structures between the two sexes  Seen in polygamous animals  Monogamy  Reproductive partnership based on a more or less permanent tie between partners  The physical characteristics of the sexes are almost indistinguishable  Biological basis of monogamy  Co-occurrence of oxytocin and dopamine in the nucleus accumbens o Dopamine is a reward neurotransmitter o Oxytocin is an attachment hormone  Oxytocin and dopamine receptors in the nucleus accumbens o Activation of one activates the other o All monogamous animals share this anatomical feature  No oxytocin receptor in the nucleus accumbens in polygamous animals o Homosexuality (e.g., giraffe, gorilla, duck)  Reproductive partnerships between members of the same sex  Adopt the children of the same species  Tend to take over other care giving roles for other members of the same species  Focus on reproduction even without direct DNA transfer  Widely displayed across the animal kingdom  Usually associated with disproportionate numbers of males and females in the social environment  Males > females, then more male-male homosexuality  Females > males, then more female-female homosexuality o Human mating  Polygamous and monogamous features of humans  Polygamy evidence: o Sexual dimorphism o Great physical variation o Most traditional cultures allow some kind of polygamy  Monogamy evidence: o Co-occurence of oxytocin and dopamine in human brain o Great physical variation among both sexes o Most men and women report hoping to settle with one life partner in the end  Human mate selection  Evolutionary approaches to mate selection o Based on reproductive investment models o Assume all behaviour is the product of reproductive fitness  Women have higher reproductive investment o Women should desire mates with resources o Men should desire youth and attractiveness - Need to belong o Motivation of belonging  Belonging is a basic human motivation  Effects of belonging  Happier  Healthier  Greater life satisfaction o Evolutionary explanations  Sociometer theory  Sociometer theory can be applied in terms of our self esteem  Self-esteem is an indicator of the likelihood of social acceptance or rejection  Human “survival tactics”  Human survival tactics require several people  Development of human children  Human children are helpless for several years o Social isolation  Long-term isolation is a form of torture or punishment  Social rejection is an unofficial way to enforce social rules in every society  Effects of social isolation  Harlow’s monkeys  Socially isolated monkeys for 3 months o Dramatic disturbances after 3 months o Huddling alone, rocking, self-mutilation, and incompetent (often abusive) parenting  Introduce isolated monkeys to a non-isolated, same-age therapist monkey o Negative impact of isolation could be reduced o Isolated monkeys will play well with therapist monkey after 2 weeks o Isolated monkeys seem mostly recovered after 6 weeks
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