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PSYB10 - 7.docx

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Elizabeth Page- Gould

LECTURE 7 – ATTRACTION AND RELATIONSHIPS Why do we like other people?  proximity  familiarity  similarity  reciprocity  attractiveness  misattribution of arousal  scarcity Proximity  propinquity Effect: the more we see and interact with other people, the more likely we are to become friends  Westgate Apartment Friendships (% close friends by neighbour type) -next door = 41% -two doors apart = 22% -opposite hallways = 10% -those next to the staircase comparatively had more friends on different floors than the others Why does proximity promote attraction?  availability/accessibility  because it suggests similarity  mere exposure Familiarity  mere exposure: the more exposure you get to a neutral object, the more you will like it  does this apply to an object with negative qualities? Research on Mere Exposure 1. confederate sits in front row of class for 0-15 classes 2. at the end of the semester, students rate liking of confederate  results showed that the more classes the confederate attended the higher the liking score Mere Exposure to Faces  we tend to prefer our mirror image over photograph image  friends prefer our photograph image Similarity or Complementary?  Complementarity – opposites attract  similarity – research supports the idea that similarity promotes liking Newcomb Experiment 1. randomly assigned first year college roommates 2. measured all sorts of personality traits, attitudes 3. look at friendship formation after first year  results showed that similarity predicted friendship formation -demographics, attitudes, values, personality traits, and communication styles 1 LECTURE 7 – ATTRACTION AND RELATIONSHIPS Reciprocal Liking  we like people who better like us  pick up subtle liking cues -eye contact -leaning in -attentive listening -mimicry  less true for people with low self esteem or negative self concept Reciprocity Experiment 1. randomly pair assignments 2. tell one participant (P1) that their partner (P2) either does or does not like then 3. P1 and P2 interact, and post interaction liking is measured Physical Attractiveness Experiment 1. 752 freshmen met up at a blind date dance 2. assigned to random pairs 3. Who wanted to go on date again?  desire for second date driven by -partner’s attractiveness -independent of rater’s attractiveness -no personality effects What is Attractive?  men: large eyes, strong cheekbones, large shin, big smile  women: large eyes, small nose, prominent cheekbones, narrow cheeks, high eyebrows, large pupils, big smile “BabyFacedness”  features: large eyes, rounder face and nose  baby-faced people: are more persuasive, perceived to be more trustworthy, evoke liking and care giving behaviours Which face is most attractive?  composite faces rated more attractive than individuals  mathematically averaged faces are more attractive because they are more familiar and more prototypical  composite faces are also more symmetrical Is Beauty Truly Average?  composites of people rated highly attractive are more attractive than composites of all attractive levels  Attractiveness and liking relations is somewhat hard-wired  babies stare at attractive faces linger  there is fair amount of cross-cultural consistency in attractiveness judgements 2 LECTURE 7 – ATTRACTION AND RELATIONSHIPS Why does beauty promote attraction?  beautiful-is-good schema  beauty creates a halo effect -occur most fro social competence -more sociable, extraverted, popular -more sexual, happy, friendly -there is a kernel of truth here Beautifulness-is-good Stereotype  tendency to associate attractiveness with ‘goodness’ Matching Hypothesis  we seek partners that are of similar attractiveness to us, and are more satisfied with these partners  evidence for matching hypothesis: couples of similar attractiveness were more likely ot continue dating after a blind date UCLA Dating Study 1. recruited dating partners and took a picture of each 2. other students rated each partner’s attractiveness 3. six months later, researchers contacted dating partners to ask about their relationship  results showed that similarity in attractiveness predicted: satisfaction in relationship, relationship longevity, lower break-up rate at 6 month follow up Scarcity  if potential mates are not plentiful, we may shift our standards of attractiveness Closing Time Study 1. approach people in bars 2. people asked to judge attractiveness of same-sex and opposite-sex targets (photos and live) 3. time until closing time used as independent variable  attractiveness ratings of opposite-sex targets increased as the evening progresses  holds even when statistically controlling for alcohol intake Moving From Attraction to Close Relationships  evolutionary perspectives on mating  need to belong Biological Bases of Relationships  reproductive investment  polygamy and monogamy 3 LECTURE 7 – ATTRACTION AND RELATIONSHIPS  human mating Evolutionary Fitness  potential to pass on you genes/successfully procreate  ability to survive to mating years  ability to maximize the number of offspring that survive to their mating years Reproductive Investment of Each Sex  the investment of time, resources, and risk involved in having each child typically varies between the sexes  the sex which bears the most reproductive costs is ‘choosier’ Sexual Choosiness  choosey sex -bears the most reproductive costs/investment -usually the female, but not always  sex with the least reproductive costs -should want more partners -will be in competition for mates more often -displays greater physical variation Polygamy  several members of one sex mating with one individual of the other sex  polygyny: several females mate with one male (90% of mammals)  polyandry: several males mate with one female Sexual Dimorphism  pronounced difference in the size or bodily structures of the two sexes  seen in polygamous animals Monogamy  reproductive partnership based on a more or less permanent tie between partners  sexes are close to indistinguishable based on physical characteristics Biological Basis of Monogamy  co-occurrence of oxytocin and dopamine in the NuAcc  DA is a reward associated neurotransmitter  OXT is the ‘attachment hormone’ that is also a neuropeptide  OXT and DA receptors share the NuAcc  activation of one activates the other  all 5% of monogamous animals share this anatomical feature  polygamous animals have no OXT receptors in NuAcc Homosexuality  reproductive partnerships between members of the same sex  wide displayed across the animal kingdom  usually associated with disproportionate number of male and female mating adults 4 LECTURE 7 – ATTRACTION AND RELATIONSHIPS Polygamous Humans  sexual dimorphism  great physical variation  85% of traditional cultures allow some kind of polygamy Monogamous Humans  co-occurrence of OXT and DA in human brain  great physical variation among both sexes  98.9% of men and 99.2% of women report hoping to settle with one life partner in the end Shades of Grey  evidence that human sexual behaviour changes over lifespan  young adulthood – mating tends towards polygamy  mid-20s onwards – mating tends towards monogamy  some have argued that this is a superior strategy Need to Belong  motivation of belonging  Harlow’s Monkeys Motivation of Belonging  belonging is a basic human motivation  sociometer theory  human survival tactics require several people ie – building shelters, hunting, agriculture  human children are helpless for several years  compared to those who are isolated from others, people with strong social networks are: happier, healthier, have greater life satisfaction Social Isolation  long term isolation is a form of official torture or punishment in every society  social ostracism or rejection is an unofficial way to enforce social rules in every society  effects observed in other primates as well What if monkey is socially isolated?  socially isolated Rhesus monkeys for three months  still provided with regular food and contact comfort (ie good room temperature)  monkey showed dramatic disturbances are three months -huddling alone, rocking, self-mutilation -incompetent (often abusive) parenting Monkey Therapy  negative impact of isolation could be reduced by the introduction of thera
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