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Lecture

4 - Personality Assessment Lecture Outline.docx

5 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB30H3
Professor
Connie Boudens

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Description
Personality Assessment The process of evaluating individual differences through - tests - interviews - observations involves the use of systematic, standardized procedures for observing, measuring, and recording behaviours and personality features. What makes a good personality test? - Reliability across: will give you the same results each time you test the person o Time  test-retest o Items  Chronbach's alpha (greater than 0.7 but normal want greater than 0.8)  A similar to correlation – tells you how all the items of a test hang together o Raters  Inter-rater reliability - Validity: it measure what it says it is measuring o Construct: test is actually closely aligned with the construct/concept you are trying to measure o Face: does the test look like/ seem to measure what you want to o Criterion: predictive validity – how reflective it is the test as a criterea for what you expect the person to do Of special concern in test development: Convergent validity: how well do your scores on one measure converge/are similar to the scores on another measure that is used for the same purpose Discriminant validity: if two measures are used for two different things then if the same person takes the test then they should have different data on both… like there should not be a correlation between the two Types of Personality Assessment - Dream analysis - Interviews - Observation - Objective Tests o MMPI o MBTI o NEO - PI (r) - Projective Tests o Sentence completion o Rorschach Inkblot Test o ThematicApperception Test Dream Analysis - Psychodynamic approach - Freud: Dreams represented the unconscious desires of the dreamer - "royal road" to the unconscious - To reduce anxiety, ego disguises the true (latent) content of dreams using symbols (manifest content). o Manifest content is analyzed to discover repressed feelings Interviews - Face-to-face meeting to get information about someone’s personality, current psychological state, personal history, etc. o Unstructured: conversation informal, topics discussed as they arise o Structured: follow a pre-arranged plan, using series of planned questions  Can branch off and ask different questions based on the answers you get o There are also semi-structured Potential biases - Confirmation Bias: making an inference at the outset & asking questions to confirm it - Halo effect: making generalizations based on predominant features, which may be unrelated to personality o Usually used for people that are really attractive o Horn effect: the opposite – for people that have many negative qualities - Social desirability: faking good, dissimulation (covering things up, not admitting things), faking bad Observation - assessing behaviour direct surveillance - Selecting observers o Professional personality assessors  Pro: well trained = better results  Con: little access o People who actually know the target person  Often in better position to observe target's natural behaviours in a variety of contexts  May be biased because of relationship to target Observations can be Naturalistic vs. Artificial Observation - Naturalistic: observers record events that occur in the normal course of lives f the participants o Pro: their natural reactions and behaviours; how it pans out in real life o Con: not as controlled - Artificial: occurs in artificial settings of situations o Advantage: controlling conditions and eliciting relevant behaviour o Con: may behave differently because they know that they are being watched and/or taped Objective Personality Measures - Involve standard set of questions or statements. o "I am easily embarrassed: T/F" - Responses compared to established standardized norms. - From responses, develop a picture called a ‘personality profile’ - Possible response options: o T/F or Y/N o Dimensional scale: 1-5 scale etc o Visual analog: graphic indicator but similar to dimensional scale above o Adjective checklist: need to check of items from a list that answers the questions Terminology - Administration: giving someone the test - Test, scale, measure, or instrument: the entire collection of questions intended to assess an aspect or aspects of personality - Item: an individual question of the test ND Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Edition - One of the most widely used personality tests - Originally published in 1943 o to measure of psychopathology - has been used for many predictive purposed, from personnel selection to marriage suitability - Norms based on profiles of normal people and psychiatric patients o Items were chosen based on ability to discriminate between clinical groups & controls - 10 scales that result in a profile that integrates these clinical dimension of pathology and personality: Hypochondriasis, Depression, Hysteria, Psychopathic Deviate, Masculinity-Femininity, Paranoia, Psychasthenia, Schizophrenia, Hypomania, and Social Introversion o Do not have to know the names of the scales … but know that there are 10 Sample MMPI-2
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