Class Notes (839,471)
Canada (511,354)
Psychology (7,818)
PSYB30H3 (526)

4 - Personality Assessment Lecture Outline.docx

5 Pages

Course Code
Connie Boudens

This preview shows pages 1 and half of page 2. Sign up to view the full 5 pages of the document.
Personality Assessment The process of evaluating individual differences through - tests - interviews - observations involves the use of systematic, standardized procedures for observing, measuring, and recording behaviours and personality features. What makes a good personality test? - Reliability across: will give you the same results each time you test the person o Time  test-retest o Items  Chronbach's alpha (greater than 0.7 but normal want greater than 0.8)  A similar to correlation – tells you how all the items of a test hang together o Raters  Inter-rater reliability - Validity: it measure what it says it is measuring o Construct: test is actually closely aligned with the construct/concept you are trying to measure o Face: does the test look like/ seem to measure what you want to o Criterion: predictive validity – how reflective it is the test as a criterea for what you expect the person to do Of special concern in test development: Convergent validity: how well do your scores on one measure converge/are similar to the scores on another measure that is used for the same purpose Discriminant validity: if two measures are used for two different things then if the same person takes the test then they should have different data on both… like there should not be a correlation between the two Types of Personality Assessment - Dream analysis - Interviews - Observation - Objective Tests o MMPI o MBTI o NEO - PI (r) - Projective Tests o Sentence completion o Rorschach Inkblot Test o ThematicApperception Test Dream Analysis - Psychodynamic approach - Freud: Dreams represented the unconscious desires of the dreamer - "royal road" to the unconscious - To reduce anxiety, ego disguises the true (latent) content of dreams using symbols (manifest content). o Manifest content is analyzed to discover repressed feelings Interviews - Face-to-face meeting to get information about someone’s personality, current psychological state, personal history, etc. o Unstructured: conversation informal, topics discussed as they arise o Structured: follow a pre-arranged plan, using series of planned questions  Can branch off and ask different questions based on the answers you get o There are also semi-structured Potential biases - Confirmation Bias: making an inference at the outset & asking questions to confirm it - Halo effect: making generalizations based on predominant features, which may be unrelated to personality o Usually used for people that are really attractive o Horn effect: the opposite – for people that have many negative qualities - Social desirability: faking good, dissimulation (covering things up, not admitting things), faking bad Observation - assessing behaviour direct surveillance - Selecting observers o Professional personality assessors  Pro: well trained = better results  Con: little access o People who actually know the target person  Often in better position to observe target's natural behaviours in a variety of contexts  May be biased because of relationship to target Observations can be Naturalistic vs. Artificial Observation - Naturalistic: observers record events that occur in the normal course of lives f the participants o Pro: their natural reactions and behaviours; how it pans out in real life o Con: not as controlled - Artificial: occurs in artificial settings of situations o Advantage: controlling conditions and eliciting relevant behaviour o Con: may behave differently because they know that they are being watched and/or taped Objective Personality Measures - Involve standard set of questions or statements. o "I am easily embarrassed: T/F" - Responses compared to established standardized norms. - From responses, develop a picture called a ‘personality profile’ - Possible response options: o T/F or Y/N o Dimensional scale: 1-5 scale etc o Visual analog: graphic indicator but similar to dimensional scale above o Adjective checklist: need to check of items from a list that answers the questions Terminology - Administration: giving someone the test - Test, scale, measure, or instrument: the entire collection of questions intended to assess an aspect or aspects of personality - Item: an individual question of the test ND Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Edition - One of the most widely used personality tests - Originally published in 1943 o to measure of psychopathology - has been used for many predictive purposed, from personnel selection to marriage suitability - Norms based on profiles of normal people and psychiatric patients o Items were chosen based on ability to discriminate between clinical groups & controls - 10 scales that result in a profile that integrates these clinical dimension of pathology and personality: Hypochondriasis, Depression, Hysteria, Psychopathic Deviate, Masculinity-Femininity, Paranoia, Psychasthenia, Schizophrenia, Hypomania, and Social Introversion o Do not have to know the names of the scales … but know that there are 10 Sample MMPI-2
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1 and half of page 2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.