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Personality Assessment.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB30H3
Professor
Connie Boudens
Semester
Summer

Description
Personality Assessment What is Personality Assessment? Process of evaluating individual differences through  tests  interviews  observations Involves use of systematic standardized procedures for observing, measuring, and recording behaviours and personality features. What makes a good personality test? Reliability across:  Time o Test-retest: Tests should give the same answer, even after a period of time (this really only works where the thing being measured should be static – like IQ)  Items o Chronbach‘s alpha (greater than .70): is a coefficient of internal consistency.  Raters o Interrater reliability: two professionals should be able to observe an individual and both come up with the same diagnosis  Validity o Construct: the validity of inferences that observations or measurement tools actually represent or measure the construct being investigated o Face: extent to which a test is subjectively viewed as covering the concept it purports to measure. It refers to the transparency or relevance of a test as they appear to test participants. (Does the test ‗look like‘ what it‘s supposed to measure) o Criterion: measure of how well one variable or set of variables predicts an outcome based on information from other variables (Predictive validity)  Of special concern in test development: o Convergent validity : refers to the degree to which two measures of constructs that theoretically should be related, are in fact related o Discriminant validity: whether concepts or measurements that are supposed to be unrelated are, in fact, unrelated Personality Assessment Tests Dream analysis Associated with psychodynamic approach Freud: dreams represent unconscious desires (―Royal Road‖ to the unconscious) To reduce anxiety, ego disguises the true (latent) content of dreams using symbols (manifest content). Manifest content is analysed to discover repressed feelings.  A dream of something like a burning tree might actually mean that you are afraid of betrayal or something like that. However, you don‘t want to think about it so you dream of something else to hide it. Interviews Face to face meeting to get info about personality, personal history, etc. Unstructured: Conversation informal, topics discussed as they arise Structured: Follows a pre-arranged plan, using series of planned questions Potential biases Confirmation Bias: making an inference at the outset & asking questions to confirm it.  You may notice that the person seems nervous and decide that means that they have an anxiety disorder. You ask questions about whether they have ever experienced symptoms associated with anxiety (etc.) so you prove that they have that anxiety disorder. However, they might be nervous for something else – maybe their car is parked in a non-parking zone or that they‘re hiding another disorder Halo effect: generalizations based on predominant features, which may be unrelated to personality Social desirability: faking good, dissimulation, faking bad  You don‘t want to look bad in front of the interviewer or you don‘t want to admit that something might be wrong Observation Assessing behavior through direct surveillance Selecting observers  Professional personality assessors  People who actually know the target person o Often in better position to observe target‘s natural behaviors in a variety of contexts o May be biased because of relationship to target Naturalistic vs. Artificial Observation  Naturalistic: Observers record events that occur in the normal course of lives of the participants  Artificial: Occurs in artificial settings or situations. Advantage: controlling conditions and eliciting relevant behavior Objective Tests Involve standard set of questions or statements.  ‗I am easily embarrassed‘ T or F  ‗I like to go to parties‘ T or F Person‘s responses to standardized questions compared to established norms. From responses, develop a picture called a ‗personality profile‘ Possible response options:  T/F or Y/N  Dimensional scale  Visual analog  Adjective checklist Terminology  Administration: giving someone the test  Test, scale, measure, or instrument: the entire collection of questions intended to assess an aspect or aspects of personality  Item: an individual question MMPI One of most widely used personality tests  Published in 1943  Originally used to measure psychopathology  Has been used for many predictive purposes, from personnel selection to marriage suitability. Norms of the MMPI-2 based on profiles of normal people and groups of psychiatric patients  Items were chosen based on ability to discriminate between clinical groups & controls  Ex: ―Much of the time my head seems to hurt all over‖ o Endorsed by 4% of normals o Endorsed by 12% of Hypochondriasis group 10 scales that result in a profile that integrates the these clinical dimension of pathology and personality:  Hypochondriasis: See selves as physically ill and seek medical explanations  Depression: Distress, depression  Hysteria: Physical symptoms w/ no cause  Psychopathic Deviate: Disregard for moral & social standards  Masculinity-Femininity (Mf): Having traditional male or female traits  Paranoia: Fear of others & suspiciousness  Psychasthenia: Rigidity, tension, worr
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