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Chapter 6 notes.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Connie Boudens

Chapter 6 Genetics Genotype unobservable genetic constitution fixed at birth features of development switch onoff Phenotype observable behavioural characteristics level of anxiety changes over timeBehavioural genetics study of the genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences in personality and behaviour NATURE AND NURTURE AS ALLIES Nature and nurture transact genes and environment can work separately together or they may influence one another Genotypeenvironmental correlation people change environments and environments change people so we really cant separate the impact of genes on environment GENES AND ENVIRONMENTS AS COACTORS 2Heritability h the amount of observed individual differences in some characteristic that can be accounted for by genetic differencesrefers to differences across a group or population of people not to a specific personit is the inheritance of a particular trait in a particular population at a particular timethe heritability of height is 80 is the US but its only 65 in China and western Africa in Australia it is 87 for men and 71 for women 2Environmentality e extent to which observed individual differences can be traced in a way to individual differences in environments As a general rule the greater the heritability of a characteristic the less the environmentality And the greater the environmentality the less the heritability Environmental factors that can influence heightChild nutrition especially protein but also calcium vitamin A and vitamin DChildhood malnutrition is detrimental to adult heightChildhood diseasesHuman growth hormones can counteract some of these detrimental effects Shared environment aspects of the family environment that are generally the same for all children in the household This includes 3 aspectsPhysical can be the type of dwelling apartment vs house its layout theof books or computers in the home or the presence of a video gaming systemPsychological home atmosphere parenting practices the quality of sibling interactions or psychopathology alcoholism drug use depression in the home
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