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University of Toronto Scarborough
Marc A Fournier

Week 3 Gender, Society, and Culture Evolutionary approaches to personality adopt a nativist approach. It emphasizes all of the things we bring into the world. It emphasizes all of the architecture that is preestablished b4 we are born into the world. It tends to emphasize all of the innate knowledge we have before we even begin the process of learning as infants and children and later on as adults Behavioral approaches learning based approaches that have their root in the behaviorist tradition in the early 20th century. These approaches adapt an empiricist viewpoint emphasizes all that we do not bring into the world. We come into this world as blank slates tabula rasa learning experiences imprint knowledge, structure and process on top of that otherwise blank state. There are tension bw evolutionary approaches and Behavioral approach the former which emphasize innate knowledge the things we are born with, and the latter which emphasizes the learning through which we imprint on knowledge on what is otherwise a blank slate. Truth a mix of both approaches. Gender Socialization: the idea that gender roles are socialized attributes. They are things that we are taught to have as part of our early learning experience. Efficacy ones ability to perform given a certain set of circumstanceschallenge. Human agency Bandura - active deliberate role we play in shaping our own worldsown environments. Behaviorism emerges as a response to psychoanalysis. There is a growing disenchantment with the psychoanalyst reliance on all of these unobservable processes, unconscious mechanisms none of which can be reliably discerned or experimentally investigated. There is disapproval with the psychoanalyst constant reference with these hidden unconscious processes. The processes are very limited in their ability to generate predictions about future behaviors. Psychoanalysts are good at explaining why somebody has done what they have done. The emphasis for Behaviorism was on observation, on observable behavior and events, on experimentation, the elicitation of behavior under controlled environmental conditions, on replication, simplicity of explanation. Emphasis on its parsimony - the very small number of terms they need to introduce in order to explain a wide range of behavior. John Watson there are stimuli in the world that seem to reflexively produce responses in living things. The things in the world that have these reflexive consequences UCS unconditioned stimulus. 1
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