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Lecture 3

week 3 gender

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Oren Amitay

Week 3 Gender, Society, and Culture Evolutionary approaches to personality adopt a nativist approach. It emphasizes all of the things we bring into the world. It emphasizes all of the architecture that is preestablished b4 we are born into the world. It tends to emphasize all of the innate knowledge we have before we even begin the process of learning as infants and children and later on as adults Behavioral approaches learning based approaches that have their root in the behaviorist tradition in the early 20th century. These approaches adapt an empiricist viewpoint emphasizes all that we do not bring into the world. We come into this world as blank slates tabula rasa learning experiences imprint knowledge, structure and process on top of that otherwise blank state. There are tension bw evolutionary approaches and Behavioral approach the former which emphasize innate knowledge the things we are born with, and the latter which emphasizes the learning through which we imprint on knowledge on what is otherwise a blank slate. Truth a mix of both approaches. Gender Socialization: the idea that gender roles are socialized attributes. They are things that we are taught to have as part of our early learning experience. Efficacy ones ability to perform given a certain set of circumstanceschallenge. Human agency Bandura - active deliberate role we play in shaping our own worldsown environments. Behaviorism emerges as a response to psychoanalysis. There is a growing disenchantment with the psychoanalyst reliance on all of these unobservable processes,unconscious mechanisms none of which can be reliably discerned or experimentally investigated. There is disapproval with the psychoanalyst constant reference with these hidden unconscious processes. The processesare very limited in their ability to generate predictions about future behaviors. Psychoanalysts are good at explaining why somebody has done what they have done. The emphasis for Behaviorism was on observation, on observable behavior and events, on experimentation, the elicitation of behavior under controlled environmental conditions, on replication, simplicity of explanation. Emphasis on its parsimony - the very small number of terms they need to introduce in order to explain a wide range of behavior. 1 John Watson there are stimuli in the world that seem to reflexively produce responses in living things. The things in the world that have these reflexive consequences UCS unconditioned stimulus. Unconditioned stimulus any event that automatically brings about a particular response known as UCR (unconditioned response). Ex: puff of air to your eye causes you to blink spontaneously. The puff of air is an unconditioned stimulus. It is an unconditioned stimulus bc it automatically has the association of an unconditioned response to it. You will automatically blink with that puff of air. 2. A tap of a hammer to your knee will produce an unconditioned response of knee jerk kick. There are things in the world called unconditioned stimuli and they have the effect of reflexively producing responses. These responses occur wo any prior exposure to the stimulus. You dont need to have any history with the stimulus for it to produce the response in question. New stimuli could be paired with unconditioned stimuli. Through their repeated pairing with an unconditioned stimulus they can come to acquire the ability to elicit a response similar to the unconditioned response. In a repeated series of trials some new stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus. This pairing occurs repeatedly over learning opportunities. This conditioned stimulus will overtime acquire the ability to elicit a conditioned response. The conditioned will resemble the unconditioned response but it will typically be smaller in magnitude. Ex: a puff of air to the eye is an unconditioned stimulus that elicits the response of an eye blink, and then you can create a learning situation over 20 trials where you sound a bell and blow some air in to your eye and then you blink. On the 21st trial, we sound the bell you, you blink, but then we dont blow the air. Now the bell alone elicits the blinking response. The blink will not be the same response as the reflexive response, but now there is a new stimulus that has acquired the ability to elicit a response that it did not have previously. During pretesting you wouldnt just start to blink your eyes when you heard a bell but after a series of learning trials during which the stimulus is associated with an unconditioned stimulus that it becomes the conditioned stimulus eliciting the conditioned blink response. Albert taking a white rat which Albert showed no prior history of being frightened by and then pairing that exposure with a very loud noise. Over repeated trials the baby becomes terrified of the rat, because of the unconditioned stimulus (the loud noise) with which it had been paired. White rats and any white object that resembled a white rat also produced a fear response in Albert. This showed not only the strength of the conditioned response and the associative learning but how that learning 2
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