Lecture 9 The Self
Humanism – An optimistic view of a person as inherently good. (Reason and
We are capable of self governance/self regulation & great accomplishments.
Psychoanalysis – pessimistic , behaviorism – neutral , humanism – optimistic
Carl Rogers – We must do what we can to actualize our true self. (Be the best person
we can be). Much of pain, suffering comes from failures to actualize our true selves.
The OVP (Organismic Valuing Process) – Humans have fundamental capacity to
percieve the growth-relevant implications of their experiences and choices.
Fully function person – Openness to experience, capable of existential living (living
in the moment), self-trust
We need positive regard, we believe that the person we truly are will obtain positive
Conditions of worth – those conditions that apply to people whether or not they
receive love and affections. Parents don’t show us love when we do something
wrong. (we have conditions of worth)
Conditonal positive regard – love and approval can only be obtained conditionally
(only when certain conditions are met)
1. Unconditional Positive Regard – the client must feel positive regard
unconditionally from the councellor.
2. Empathic Understanding – Need to understand the world as the client sees it.
3. Reflection - The therapists acts as a mirror, allowing clients to see
themselves objectively and fully to be loved and accepted,
Abraham Maslow – Heirarchy of psychological needs.
1.Physiological needs – food water warmth rest sleep etc.
2. Safety – security and protection. housing and clothing.
3. Belongingness & Love – Communal (contact, intimacy etc)
4. Esteem – Competence, achievement, recognition, prestige, status
Deificiency motives – Things we lack. Once we get what we need, we move on.
5. Self-Actualization – The need to fulfill our potentials (Drive inducing) A meta-
need. Only once the lower defiencies have been met can this be met. The more we
experience it, the more motivated we are to acquire them. (self reinforcing) 1 in
Peak experience – rare moment when we are engaging in self actualizing activities.
Feel like we are at the peak of life, like a whole person, coherent, cohesive etc.
(Changing the way they see the world)
Flaws – priority of needs, ordering of needs, definition of needs (eg at what point is
the safety need met?)
Self-Determination Theory – Edward Deci (Intrinsic Motivation)
Deci’s free choice paradigm – Students played with the puzzle during their spare
time more than those that were paid. Basic Psychological Needs according to Deci
Autonomy – the feeling that we have a choice and ownership over ourselves.
Competence – to feel capable
Relatedness – to be connect