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Week 7 Lecture Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Marc A Fournier

Week 7 Lecture Notes Week 7 - Goals & Strivings 1 THE LEGACY OF DAVID C.MCCLELLAND Introduction to Social Motivation McClellands Defination of a Motive Need A recurrent preference or readiness for a particular quality of experience, which energizes, directs, and selects behavior in certain situations. Motivational preferences are like lenses through which we see the world, it filters the experience into the kinds of qualities that are most relevanta nd meaningful to you. It affects the way we see the world and differentiates it from the way other people see the world. Motive does not equal trait. Traits refer to the questions of what (What behaviors does people show? What feelings are someone prone to having?) Motivational constructs refer to the questions of why Motive does not equal Conscious Intention We can look into ourselves and see the intention we have. But there are certain motivations that are only partly accessible by consciousness, these unconscious motivation shape us the way we are. How do you measure something that people are not aware of? We cant use self report because people cant report on what they are not aware of. We use Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) It is a standardized sequence of cards that have pictures on it. The participant is instructed to lookat the picture and write a story of whats going on in the picture. (a man and woman sitting next to a river etc... ) The participant then writes the story baesd on the SAME sequence of pictures in which all participants see. The pictures themselves dont have fixed stories embedded in them, the story content that people write reveals the underlying needs, conflicts, and complexes that subjects project onto the picture. Because theyre being projected onto the picture reflecting their inner selves. TAT = projective test Developing a TAT Scoring System They begin with a rough theory of the kinds of conditions under which a particular motive may be temporarily elevated. Then, they create themes that differentiate the stories written under motive arousal conditions from those written under neutral testing conditions. They use several motive arousal conditions as part of this process (they tell a person that the pictures test their achievement motivations or leadership motivations, that would elevate the inner achievement motivations of the individuals) Then, use those themes as part of a scoring system to asses the motivation of individuals. Assume that those individuals who show more frequent thematic imagery have a higher baseline level for that specific motive. (now if a neutral person writes a similar story as the achievement motivation person, then the neutral person has a high baseline level of motivational achievement) Criticisms of the TAT Poor reliability (low internal consistency) Poor criterion validity (because of the poor reliability, its hard to have good validity)
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