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PSYB32H3 (614)


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University of Toronto Scarborough
Mark Schmuckler

Psyb20-ch6 Early emotional development -emotions : subjective reactions to something in the environment that are usually experienced cognitively as either pleasant or unpleasant that are generally accompanied by physiological changes and that are often expressed in some form of visible behavior Why are emotions important -emotions are a means of letting others know how we fell and in communicating our emotions and learning to interpret other people’s emotions we achieve social success -emotions are linked to children’s mental and physical health as well -physical health suffers too when emotional development goes wrong Primary and secondary emotions -primary emotions- fear, joy, disgust, surprise, sadness and interest occur early in life do not need self reflection -secondary emotion- pride, jealousy, shame guilt and embarrassment later in dev and depend on our sense of self and our awareness of other individual’ reactions to our actions Perspectives on emotional development -a child’s emotional dev is influenced by her genetic inheritance, the conditions of the enviro into which she is born her interactions with fam members and later with peers The genetic maturational perspective -emotions are best seen as products of biological factors -individual differences in temperament play a central role in how intensely children react to emotionally arousing situations and in how well they are able to regulate their reactions -identical twisn show greater similarity than fraternal twins in both the earliest times of their first smiles and the amount of smiling in which each engages -babies begin to smile about 6weeks after they are born -certain amount of physical maturation and social stimulation must occur before a baby is ready to start smiling Learning perspective -the frequency with which children smile and laugh seems to vary with the nature of the environment in which they are raised -parents can help their children learn to manage and understand their emotions by rewarding only certain emotional displays -parents who respond with enthusiasm to their smiling infant will tend to encourage him to smile more -children may learn other fears through operant conditioning when one of their own behaviors is followed by a consequence -they can learn other fear by simply observing others ex: a child may watch her mother react fearfully to a bee and later imitate her mothers reaction The functionalist perspective -emotions serve to help us achieve our goals and adapt to our environment, the role of emotions in establishing and maintaining social relationships -it incorporates many features of the learning perspective -the purpose of emotion is to help us achieve our goals -goals arouse emotions ex: the emotion of fear may lead us to flee the dangerous situation, enabling us to achieve the goal of self preservation -it also recognizes the social nature of emotions, we use info provided by others emotional signals to guide our own behavior ex: trying to make friends, someone smiles at you then you will react and talk to them -memories of the past serve as a guide in shaping how the child will respond emotionally to a situation -emotions regulate children’s behavior and enhance their adaptation to their environment ex: people always negative to you then you wont try as hard to make friends -different theories are useful in answering different questions The development of emotional expressions -how researchers can distinguish among infants’ expressions of all emotions is by means of coding systems that pay careful attention to change in a baby’s facial expression and bodily movements -systems assign finely differentiated scores to different parts of the face and to specific infant movement patterns -coding systems for infant expressions now in use, the Maximally Discriminative facial movement (MAX coding system) Development of primary emotions Positive primary emotions: smiling and laughter -reflex or simple smiles are usually spontaneous and appear to depend on the infant’s internal state and they serve a good purpose -smiles may have adaptive value for the baby, ensuring critical caregiver attention and stimulation, smiles becomes means of communication -infants smiles almost exclusively at the human face -smiling behavior follows a similar pattern: babies smile at the eyes, then the mouth, then the entire face and facial expression -3 months start to smile more selectively at familiar faces -functionalist perspective: infant smiles become more discriminating as babies develop -10 month old generally reserved special kind of smile for their mothers, baby display genuine smiles for their mothers - there are individual differences in the amount of smiling a baby does, some of these differences have to do with social responsiveness of the baby’s enviro -gender is related to baby’s smiling: girls generally show more spontaneous smiles than boys, teenage girls smile more than teen boys. Girls may be genetically better prepared for social interaction than boys because their greater tendency to smile more often draws others to them (supports genetic maturational perspective) -there are national ethnic and gender differences in smiling -canada and the US show larger gender differences in smiling, this may be because there are more stereotypes here compared to other countries where there is no diff in men and woman smiling because they see them as equal -ethnicity difference is consistent with findings that African American parents treat boys and girls more similarly than European parents -laughter plays a very important role in caregiver infant interaction -laughter elicited in babies between 4 and 12 months of age by a wide array of visual tactile auditory and social behavioral stimuli -babies are increasingly likely to laugh at visual tactile and social events but their reaction to auditory stimulation remain stable -end of 1 year babies respond more to social games visual displays and other activities in which they can participate 2 yr infants increasingly smile and laugh in response to activities that they create themselves -as children grow older laughing increases and becomes more of a social event Negative primary emotions: fear anger and sadness Fear -fear of strangers evolves more slowly than positive emotional expression -2 phase in the emergence of fear:3 months, infants show wariness where they respond with distress to an even that includes both familiar and unfamiliar aspects which they therefore cannot comprehend and assimilate. -7-9 months olds show true fear immediate negative reaction to an event that has specific meaning to them, such as seeing the face of a total stranger -4months babies smile less at unfamiliar adults -often they look longer at a stranger than at a familiar person and if the mother is present they will frequently look back and forth between her and the stranger as if comparing them -stranger distress: a fear of strangers that typically emerges in infants around the age of 9 months -functionalist perspective on emotional dev, contextual factors help determine the way the infant will react to a stranger -when babes meet strangers in their own homes they show less stranger fear than when encountering unfamiliar people in an unfamiliar setting such as a researcher’s lab -when a baby sees his mother reacting positively to a stranger he tends to follow suit and responds much more positively smiling more approaching the stranger and offering his toys -social referencing: the process of reading emotional cues in others to help determine how to act in an uncertain situation -infants grow also in their tendency to check with their mothers before they act -younger infants often act first and look later a strategy that could lead to trouble in dangerous situation -another contextual factor is the degree to which the situation allows the infant some control over the extent and pace of the interaction -size is less important than faces and babies react more negatively to adult faces than a child’s -a stranger;s behavior also affects the degree of stranger distress and infant display -infants are more apprehensive when confronted by a passive and sober looking stranger -fear do appear to be universal -seperation protest: an infants distress reaction to being separated from his or her mother, which typically peaks at about 15 months of age Anger and sadness -izard, holds that newborns do express specific emotions first negative expressions to appear are startle, disgust and distress -2 ½ or 3 months they begin reliably to display facial expressions of anger interest surprise and sadness -early emotions are prob influence and at the outset of genetic maturational factors -over time, learning and functional perspective come into play -infants usually display anger in response to particular external events, by offering them a teething biscuit and then withdrawing it just before it reaches the baby’s mouth -babies respond to emotional provocations in predictable way at specific ages an anger is elicited by pain by pain and frustration -sadness is a reaction to pain, hunger or lack of control but occurs less often than anger -babies become sad when there are breakdowns in parent-infant communication -in older infants, separation from their mothers or other familiar caregivers can lead to sadness as well Development of secondary emotions more complex emotions: pride shame guilt and jealousy -display of more complex emotions requires the ability to differentiate and integrate the roles of multiple factors in a situation and often includes the role of personal responsibility -they rely on the development of self awareness Pride and shame -3 years old were more likely to feel pride if they succeeded at difficult tasks rather than at easy ones -expressed more shame if they failed an easy task but expressed little shame if they failed at a difficult tas -children’s understanding of pride also depends on their ability to entertain multiple emotions and on their sense of personal agency or effort -10-18 year old subjects realized feeling proud can occur only when good outcomes are the result of a person’s own effort not or luck or chance Guilt -the appreciation of the central role of personal responsibility in their behavior in relation to other people -the older children had a clear understanding of this emotion and its relation to personal responsibility -9 yr olds recognize that to feel guilty it is critical to be responsible for the outcome of a situation -young children focus on simple outcomes whereas older children, who focus on the role of personal responsibility understand that they themselves caused the outcome they need not feel guilty Jealousy -occur as early as 1 yr -it is a social emotion it occurs among three people who have established important social relationships -way that children express their jealousy changes across development -younger children displayed distress whereas older children showed sadness and anger -children who react with jealousy may be less able to focus on their play activities than children who show less jealousy -experience and expression of jealousy depend on the nature of the relationship in which this unpleasant emotion arises -when children have a secure and trusting relationship with their mothers and fathers jealousy between siblings is less prevalent -close and positive relationships show less jealousy from children Individual differences in emotion -behaviorally inhibited: children who tend to be shy, fearful and introverted often avoiding even their peers and they are more anxious and upset by mildly stressful situations tht are other children -they show physiological reactions like rapid heart rates and their fearful responses and shyness tend to endure across time -however warm positive parents can reduce fearfulness -10 yr olds who exhibited high levels of negative emotionality were more likely to have adjustment difficulties -children who were judged emotionally positive had high self esteem and social competence indicating better adjustment Recognizing emotions in others -facial expressions are an effective way for parent to communicate their feelings and wishes ot a child who cannot yet understand speech -babies may develop the ability to recognize positive emotions such as joy earlier than they can recognize negative emotions such as anger ex: they looked longer at a face expressing joy than fear -recognition of joy rewarding can provide self enhancing , this can also strengthen the mother infant bond and facilitate mutually rewarding experiences -recognize joy first and display it first by smiles -duchenne smiles are authentic smiles -the nature of early experience alerts children’s ability to recognize emotions -when mothers spent more time interacting directly with their babies, their infants were more successful at recognizing their mother’s emotional expressions -quality and quantity of interactions between parents and infants make a difference in children’s ability to recognize emotions -abused children who experience high levels of threat and hositility are able to identify anger expression easily than non abused children -china and mexico are societies that value group harmony and focus on other’s feelings is one way to achieve goal, they are better at recognizing emotions -harder tfor babies to learn to recognize expressions of emotions in others than it is for them to learn to express emotions accurately themselves -producing these expressions is at least in part genetically determined -2 or 3 children show production and recognition skills that are positively corre
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