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Psychology (7,818)
PSYB32H3 (614)
Lecture

PSYB32 - Lecture 2

12 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB32H3
Professor
Konstantine Zakzanis

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Description
PSYB32 ­ L2 ● review of intro psych and its principles ○ more applied to abnormal psych ● paradigms and its cultural role ○ set of basic assumptions that a clinician will make ■ general perspective that defines how to ● conceptualize/study a subj./patient ■ how to gather/interpret relevant data ■ how to think about a subj./patient ● ways in which we understand patients before us ○ e.g. think of psychiatrists who think alt. neurochemistry will change behaviour ■ biological approach ■ will most likely treat you w/ medication ○ e.g. see a psychotherapist ■ may come from humanistics/existential/cognitive­behavioural ■ may believe more psychogenic origin rather than biological ● four paradigms ○ biological ○ cognitive­behavioural ● biological paradigm ○ behavioural genetics ■ study of individual differences in behaviour ● attributable in part to differences in genetic makeup ■ one way how we research these disorders ■ check if disease/mental disease has a mental component ■ will define geno/phenotype ● genotype ○ inherited ○ what you’re born w/ ○ unobservable ○ what makes up your genetic make up ○ can’t see it, born w/ it ● phenotype ○ individual observable characteristics ○ product of environment and genotype ○ reasons for delusions/depression can be found in the body ○ very reductionist approach ○ four methods ■ family method ● should show relationship b/t shared genes in the indexed case (person w/ the disorder) and the prevalence of the disorder in probands (relatives, 10% chance of having) ■ twin method ● MZ­ monozygotic ○ share 100% genetic makeup ● DZ­ dizygotic ○ share 50% genetic makeup ● e.g. schizophrenia ○ concordance ■ when twins are similar diagnostically speaking ○ extent that a predisposition a mental disorder can be inherited ○ concordance should be higher in MA than DZ ○ when MZ concordance is higher than DZ ■ characteristics being studied are said to be pairable ■ adoptees ● person/twin sets not raised by biological parents ● environmental factors can be ruled out ○ e.g. twins with schizophrenic mother are raised by a couple w/o schizophrenia; can rule out the fact/idea that the schizophrenic mother contributed to the illness ● rarer for MZ to be split vs DZ ○ one rare case; one MZ twin was not w/ the biological parent and the other twin was w/ the biological parent ■ linked analysis (not in lecture slides) ● look for a large collection of individuals in the family unit that may have the disorder ● looking for biological/genetic markers (e.g. blood/urine samples) ○ what might be common in family w/ disorder ● schizophrenia/depression are not inherited genetically (key in abnormal psychology) ○ could be the case that genetics leave you predisposed to having these disorders ■ greater risk for having these disorders ● physicians working from a biological paradigm are interested in the neurochemistry of the brain ○ two key terms in biochemistry ■ neurotransmission ● communication lines b/t neurons, powered by electricity ● chemical molecules ○ messages neurons exchange ● molecules that move from one neuron to the next are called neurotransmitters ● serotonin inhibits our violent behaviour ● noradrenaline sounds the alarm about threats from outside ○ prepare us for fight/flight ● substance P, pain ○ makes us say, “ouch” ● painkillers, endorphins ● easy to disturb chemical equilibrium ● if electrical impulses go awry in brain ○ chemical transactions are messed ■ can result in mood disorders ■ reuptake ● when action potential reaches the synaptic terminal of axon ○ reaches the synapse, where two neurons ■ come close, but don’t touch each other ● the synaptic cleft is a gap ○ separates synaptic terminal of the axon (presynaptic neuron) and the dendrite (postsynaptic neuron) ● neurotransmitters released into synaptic cleft when synaptic terminal becomes positively charged b/c the action potential arrives @ the synaptic terminal ○ neurotransmitters bind to the membranes of dendrites and diffuse quickly ● excitatory synapse ○ each type of receptor in the post synaptic membranes binds to a specific type of neurotransmitter ■ after binding, receptor causes ion channels to open (specific channels) ● different types of medication will be discussed ● structure/function of the human brain ○ clinical neuropsychologists try to understand how abnormal activity arises from disturbed brain functioning ○ cortical structures (outer layers) ■ important in higher order cognition ● frontal/temporal/occipital/parietal ○ inner structures, subcortical found deep in the brain ■ mov’t disorders ○ frontal lobes ■ executive functioning ● motor mov’t ● planning ● inhibition ● emotion ● memory, specific components ■ right side­ if you get lesions, gives rise to manic episodes ● retrieves information from memory ■ left side­ scar/damage, depressed ● encoding, memory, information coming in ● Broca’s area ○ temporal ■ language centers ■ hippocampus ■ left ● Wernicke’s, comprehension of verbal sides ■ right ● comprehension of non­verbal sides ○ occipital ■ vision ○ parietal ■ touch ■ visual construction functioning ■ visual/spatial function ■ right ● apraxia, difficulty understanding mov’t ■ left ● visual spatial neglect ○ e.g. neglects left side ● techniques ○ structural imaging technique ■ CT/MRI ○ functional neuroimaging, fMRI, PET scan ● MRI scans video ○ showed abnormality in the brain of the schizophrenic versus the other twin ● in biological paradigm approaches to treatment, pharmacology is the most common approach ○ psychoactive drugs ■ anxiolytics­ anxiety, sleep disorders, people w/ phobias/pain disorders ● benzodiazepines ○ e.g. xanax ○ antidepressants­ depression, eating disorders (anorexia/bulimia), first line treatment for pain disorders, dementia ■ SSRI ● e.g. prozac ■ tricyclic antidepressants ● e.g. elavil ■ monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) ● e.g. nardil ○ antipsychotics­ psyche drugs, schizophrenia, behavioural disorders (after brain injuries, patient might be agitated), dementia, depression ■ phenothiazines ● e.g. thorazine ■ thioxanthenes ● e.g. cloxan ■ second generation antipsychotics ● e.g. clozapine ○ psycho­stimulants, ADHD, improves cognition, Alzheimer’s, dementia ■ amphetamines ● e.g. ritalin ● psychiatry uses a shotgun approach ○ cycles through different medicines until one shows improvement in the patient ● psychoanalytic paradigm (Freud) ○ structures of the mind­ gave rise to neurosis (anxiety, abnormal behaviour from the unconscious conflict b/t the 3 structures) ■ id ● below our awareness ● driven by need of immediate gratification ● unconscious ● when it’s unsatisfied, creates tension ○ manifests as anxiety ■ engages in primary process thinking­ imagination ● to release tension ● works on the pleasure principle ■ ego ● primarily conscious, it’s us and deals w/ reality ● secondary process thinking ○ planning/making decisions to arrive at the conclusion that operating on pleasure principle 24/7 is not best for long term ● wor
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