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PSYB32 Lecture 2

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Konstantine Zakzanis

PSYB32 Lecture 2 - Paradigms paradigms have profound impact on patient. ▯ may have depression: a humanist won’t diagnose/use a label. a psychiatrist may use a name for the disorder and treat with psychopharmacology. as new technologies are created, new paradigms are adopted: new medicines bio Biological paradigm  Behavior genetics: study of individual differences in behavior that are attributable to one’s genetic makeup (genotype vs. phenotype)  Genotype (total genetic makeup, includes unobservable genes from birth. They are fixed, but even though you have it, they can turn on and off as determined by environment or psychobiological factors)  Phenotype (totality of observable behavioral characteristics, which changes over time. Product between genotype and environment.  Four Methods to study behavioral genetics (if someone has a predisposition) ○ Family method  searching for Probands (someone with a disorder such as schizophrenia) family members, first degree relatives share 50% genetic makeup, so we can understand the incidence of the disorder/genetic predisposition. (are you more likely to get the disorder if you’re related to someone who has it) ○ Twin method  Monozygotic (MZ) twins (100% genetic overlap) they may have the genotypes, but it may never switch on.  Dizygotic (DZ) twins (50% genetic overlap) ○ Adoptees method  twins who are raised with different parents-not the same environment. ○ Linkage Analysis Neurotransmission: dopamine, seratonin, Reuptake: Analysis the absorption by a presynaptic nerve ending of a neurotransmitter that it has secreted Cortical vs Subcortical structures of the brain ▯ cortical: higher order cognition (Learn, plan) ▯ Subcortical: within the brain, lower order (awake, asleepness) Structure and function of the human brain (Behavior neuroanatomy)  Frontal lobes…executive functions, broca’s area (speech)  Right side…retrieval, psychotic symptoms (such as mania/depression)  Left side…learning, taking in information  Temporal lobes…language, wernike’s area, hippocampus (consolidation, learning and forming)  Parietal Lobes…sensation, calculations, visual/spacial, coordination, construction  Occipital Lobes…vision Biological Paradigm Approaches to Treatment: Anxiolytics (anxiety, stress, sleep disorders, sometimes depression) Antidepressants (depression, anxiety, OCD, eating disorders, personality disorders) Psychoactive drugs (anti-psychotic, schitzophrenia) Psychostimulant (ADD, narcolpsy, alzhiemers Psychoanalytic Paradigm Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Structure of the mind (unconscious conflicts, bring conflicts to consciousness ▯ Id: unconscious (pleasure, immediate gratification, primary process) when it doesn’t get immediate gratification, it produces anxiety to engage in behavior or create a disorder, or create illusions ▯ Ego: conscious (reality, secondary) ▯ Superego: decides what should happen Defense mechanisms (protects Ego from the Id)  Repression: putting unacceptable thoughts and ideas into the unconscious  Denial
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