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Lecture 2

PSYB20 - Lecture 2 Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Diane Mangalindan

Heredity & Environment Lecture 2 - September 11th, 2013 Behaviour Genetic s - Contributions of heredity and environment. Differences in human behaviour. Focus on heritability factors. Environmental influences play a major role. Methods of Study: Twin - Monozygotic (MZ) vs. dizygotic (DZ) twins. Separated at birth or early in life. Genotype constant with varying environments. Limitations: (a) small sample (b) lack of control Methods of Study: Adoption - Examine two types of relationships: (a) Adopted child & adoptive parents (b) Adopted child & biological parents Limitations: (a) Lack of data availability (b) Selective placement (c) Homogeneity of adoptive homes Basic Concepts Genotype vs. Phenotype - Set of genes inherited from parents. Observable & measurably expression. Examined by psychologists. Genetic Transmission - Ovum + Sperm = 23 pairs of chromosomes Genes & DNA - Genetic information contained in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Chemical bases – adenine, thymine, guanine, & cytosine. Order of bases determine organism and characteristics. Based on protein production. Genome - Entire DNA sequence. Blueprint for organisms. Monomorphic vs. polymorphic genes. Where does variability come from? - On individual genes. Meiosis: simple genetic transmission. Random mixing & crossing over of genetic information. Homozygous vs. heterozygous. Sex Chromosomes - Determine the person's sex. XX - female XY - male Variability: Additive - Each parent passes an allele, which determines offspring characteristic. Runs in families. Variability: Configural - Emergenesis (Lykken, 1982). Emergenic traits will not run in families, but identical twins will share them. Change in one component results in a qualitatively different trait. Genetic but do not run in families. MZ correlations greater than twice DZ correlation. Facial Beauty - Attractiveness of one facial feature depends on
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