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ch.4 notes

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Mark Schmuckler

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Chapter 4Infancy Sensation Perception and Learning The New BornNeonate a new born babyNew babys reflex o Welldeveloped reflexes and sensory responses and they can respond and adapt to the environment from the first moments after birth o Reflexes a humans involuntary response to external stimuli o Abnormalities in a babys reflexes during the first days or weeks after birth can be useful indicators for indentifying visual and hearing problems and they can even help predict abnormal functions that do not appear until months or years later o Reflexes that are weak absent unusually strong or fail to disappear can be a sign of neurological problemsInfant state a recurring pattern of arousal in the new born ranging from alert vigorous wakeful activity to quiet regular sleep o Tells us important characteristics of human behaviorFrom early in life human behavior is organized and predictable infant states occur in a regular fashionHuman beings are not passive creatures that merely react to the environment internal forces regulate much of our behavior and explain many of the changes in our activity levels o Two basic infant states waking and sleeping o SleepNewborns sleep about 70 of the time in a series of long and short napsThey sleep during the night and less in the day as they get olderThey become less fussy as they gain controlInfants internal biorhythms adapt to the demands of the externalSleeping arrangements of parents and children represent central ideas about family relationships and the proper course of human developmentCosleeping arrangements may also have specific health benefits for the developing infant such as risk factors of sudden infant death syndrome SIDS udden infant death syndrome sudden and unexpected death of an otherwiseapparently healthy infant under 1 year of age Death usually remains unexplained after all known and possible causes of death have been ruled outDistinguished different phases of infant sleep cycle REM sleep and nonREM sleepREMnonREM sleep rapid eye movement REM sleep is characterized by rapid jerky movements of the eyes and in adults is often associated with dreaming infants spend 50 of their sleep in REM activity where as adults spend only about 20 the activity is absent in the remaining nonREM sleepREM is also characterized by fluctuating heat and blood pressure
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