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Lecture 9

PSYB32-Lecture 9.docx

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Konstantine Zakzanis

PSYB32 Lecture 9 SubstanceRelated DisordersDrugs are usually initially pleasing thus people do more and eventually become dependent encountering all sorts of problemsIn a study done by an Oxford psychiatrist the prevalence of recreational substance abuse and dependence skyrockets through teen and young adult years this type of behaviour typically stops at 30 yearsoldSubstance dependence is characterized by any three of the following symptoms o Tolerance is indicated when larger doses of the substance are needed to produce the desired effect also the effects of the drugs become markedly less if the usual amount is taken o Withdrawal are the negative physiological or psychological symptoms that develop when the person suddenly stops taking the substance or reduces the amount also defined by a person who uses the substance to avoid the withdrawal symptoms o Person uses more of the substance or uses it for a longer time than intended o Person recognizes excessive use of substance problem with this criteria is that most people with substance problem will not admit it quite readily typically the first step with rehab programs o Much of the persons time is spent trying to obtain substance or recover from its effects o Substance use continues despite problems o Person gives up or cuts back participating in many activities because of substance person has limited social circle person gets high or drunk at home alone as well o Also add the qualifier of addiction when the substance dependence is accompanied by either tolerance or withdrawalPhysiological tolerance typically means two things greater problems and it is much more difficult to treatSubstance abuse is characterized by at least one of the following o Failure to fulfill major obligations inability to go to work every morning o Exposure to physical dangers drinking and driving o Legal problems trafficking drugs o Persistent social or interpersonal problems being violently abusive of spouse or children o No withdrawal or tolerance with substance abuse o Another possible diagnostic entity is substance intoxication would be acute effects of what a drug or alcohol might cause brought into emergency room with hallucinations violent behaviourAlcohol abuse and dependence o Alcoholism is the fourth leading cause of disability worldwide not culture specific and costs are high in terms of a burden on health care o Somebody who is dependent on alcohol will have more disability with respect to the activities of daily living and will have evidence of tolerance or withdrawal
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