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Lecture 02.docx

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Konstantine Zakzanis

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Lecture 02 1. The role of paradigms  Paradigm: conceptual framework or approach within which a scientists works  Assumptions, dictate which we understand and treat disorders, how to treat disorders, how to conceptualize and study a subject /patient, how to gather and interpret data, assessing a subject. a) Biological paradigm:  MRI  Biological interplay, symptoms, biological marker  Genetic info, express DNA , (family method)  Psychopathology, study of individual, individual differences, in behavior that are attributable in part to differences in genetic makeup.  Genotype: genetic constitutions fixed, born with it, inherit, unobservable. e.g.: likelihood Depression  Totality of observable, behavioral characteristic: both genotype environment e.g.: anxiety  First degree relatives: mum, dad  Second degree relatives: share 25% genetic makeup Nephew, niece  Study whether disorder have genetic makeup, looking at predisposition for mental disorder in a family  Present 1 degree relatives probands should have disorder at higher rate  Genetic predisposition is present, 1 degree relatives of index cases (probands) should have disorder at higher rate than that found in the general population  1% getting Schizophrenia does not have parents who have Schizophrenia is idiopathic, no degree relative relationship but if 10% chance of getting Schizophrenia and one of the parent have the disease, must be genetic component to the illness  Twin method : 50% prevalence rate for MZ twins, have something to do with environment  Adoptees method 2. Structure and function of the brain: a. Cortical structure is responsible for higher order cognition, learning language b. Sub cortical structure: within brain Movement disorders, hallucinations e.g.: Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease c. Human brain: i. Frontal lobes: abstract thoughts, planning, movement , judgment,  Left: Broca’s area, speech production, on coding: put info into brain Hippocampus: consolidates learning  Right: retrieval  Executive functioning: planning, organizing, problem solving, insight, understanding humor, appropriate ii. Temporal lobe: Wenicke’s area, decode, comprehension,  Left: comprehend verbal sounds & language  Right: decode non verbal sound: sirens, barks iii. Parietal lobe: cognition, motor, movement initiation  Left: conceptual :tooth brush brushes hair  Right: visual neglect iv. Occipital lobe: vision 3. Neuro- imaging instrumentation : PET SCAN &MRI SCAN a. Structural: photograph structure of brain: MRI b. Functional neruo blood flow: PET 4. Psychoactive drugs: a. Anxiolytics: anxiety disorder: generalizing anxiety disorder, panic attack, post traumatic stress disorder, pain disorder, sleep disorder, personality disorder b. Antidepressants: eating disorders, substance abuse, personality disorder, aging c. Antipsychotics: Schizophrenia, obsessive compulsive, bipolar disorder(mood stabilizing) d. Psycho-stimulants:  Ritalin: ADD, ADHD  Aricept: cognitive: Alzheimer’s disease 5. Psychoanalytic paradigm: a. Psychopathology results from unconscious conflict in the individual causing anxiety, depression, cause neurosis b. Structure of the mind:  ID: i) Sex, food water ii) Pleasure principle:  Immediate gratification  Unconscious  when not satisfied anxiety resulted  Ego:  Reality principle  Conscious  deal with reality  Secondary thinking: planning, decision making  Mediates the demand of reality and immediate gratification by ID  Superego  Moral , values, ideal live by  Conscious  psychodynamic theory  Incorporate with parents, schooling, friends  Defence mechanisms unconscious to protect ego from anxiety  Repression: mind pushes unacceptable impulses thoughts into the unconsciou
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