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Lecture 6


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Mark Schmuckler

PSYB20 LEC 6 Piaget’s theory  Organization o Children are always organizing their schema in higher order  Adaptation o Children are faced w/ truly novel events TF must have means to modify their schemas using adaptation o 2 processes  Assimilation  Attempt to interpret new experiences w/ reference to previous experiences  Because new experiences do not always fit into the way we understand the world, TF new experiences occur in assimilation and accommodation  Accommodation o End product of 2 processes of adaptation  Cognitive equilibrium  Child produces harmonious state of his knowledge of the world and the actual outside world Stages of cognitive development  Viewed cog growth as going through major stages- based on structure or organization of child’s intellect  These changes group together based on similar modes of thought  4 stages  2 properties of stage theory 1. stages occur in invariant, unchanging developmental sequence – stages have to occur in an specific unchanging occur  suggest there’s a strong biological component  bc the environment cannot change the stages the order to go through the stages  must go through these stages - can’t miss a stage or reverse a state  only time can be changed  TF suggest the environment can alter the time period of when you go through it 2. Hierarchal orders in these stages  When moving to stage 2- doesn’t mean you lose abilities from stage 1- those abilities become transformed and incorporated into later stages - notion Sensorimotor Stage Period of sensorimotor intelligence Specific abilities that appear to develop during sensorimotor abilities  Intentional behaviour (8-12 months) o Child combines diferent schemas into complex schemas- axns are no longer hit or miss- child intentionally put schemas to act out what he/she wants o This suggest- child engages in goal-directed intentional behaviour Object hiding task - show baby a toy - hide it behind a cover - baby purpose takes out the cover to get the toy - 2 schemes o pull something to reach the cover o reaching recovering toy o Thus Piaget called this “means end sequence”- foundation for all problem solving o Another significance their ability to retrieve the hidden toy- children understand object permanence- child has understand objects continue to exist even if you cannot see them- prior to this- child has no knowledge object exist they could not see it The A-not- B error - 2 hiding positions (2 cups)- take a toy and hide it in front of child – due to object permanence – they left the cup w/ toy. o Take same toy you put in B location  Found child will continue o Child can initially recover toy, but when it moves to B location- they are not successful at retrieving - Piaget- it occurs bc child does not have complete object representation, but they have object permanence. o The object only exist bc they search for in A cup so they associate that axn to cup A not B, their object representation not mature. Pre-operational stage - The development of mental representation - Use mental images to retrace steps if we lost something or to imitate one’s behaviour by using concepts - Hidden displacement o Object is put o Child does not see it moving from A to B. Put an extra cup on top of Cup A and move it to b location o Children are able to solve hidden displacement bc they understand it moves using mental representation - Deferred imitation o Show child behaviour- 24 hours later, have mental representation of what that model and produce it. o Remember the index finger movement example. - Increase in representational ability- increase in symbolic activity - Infant and toddler are beginning to show them but in this stage- this symbolic activity blossoms - Most sig achievement in preoperational period is symbolic function o Ability to make one thing stand for something else o Ex: development of language o Children begin to use language at 2 years of old o Making words stand for objects, people, concepts - Pretend play o Ability to pretend to be someone else require symbolic activity means what you can distinguish between real or make belief – they know they are pretending to be superheros o - Egocentrism - Animism o Tendency to attribute life like characteristics to inanimate objects o
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