LEC 2 CHAPTER 1
BM= behavior modification
Behavior –according to book author “we think of only human intervention”. Behavior is what we can see
objectively and can see in third person perspective.
Could be an activity e.g. granular, muscular, and nervous.
We can use fMRI to see the change in behavior
Behavior can be seen as every sense of dimension
IT is an activity and thus not STATIC, it’s not a label or state (label is great for saying what somebody
might be doing but it will not be same as what a person is doing when his/her behavior is excess or
Ex : somebody could be angry. “angry” is label. If it is associated with a sibling, it is an activity.
Behavior is a process not a product.
It can have effect on environment - physical and social. Putting switch on/off is a “physical” change
while police and court actions related to a crime involve “social” element.
Jake the runner- see duration, frequency and intensity to inc exercise behavior
Duration- treadmill how long exercising
Frequency- measuring 3 times per week
Intensity- level 8 out of 20 on a treadmill or heart rate recorder records average level of heart
Behavior is lawful – functional relationship in behavior and environment, there is a direct relationship. It
is very scientific and it is quantitative, we can intervene and improve life of pple.
Behavior can be overt or covert- we will be looking at overt (visible to others) behavior for most part of
Behavior can be observed, can be seen in third party perspective or by individual himself Two branches of behavior: analyze and modify behavior.
Behavior deficient e.g not studying enough for a course
Behavior excessive e.g nail biting
Behavior modification contain basic behavior principles
Compare to other psychology, we want to understand current phenomenon. Another school of
psychology doesn’t adhere to current environment-> Freudarian (based on events on past). In reality BM
psychologist says that everything is quantifiable, if not then it’s not a behavior.
We can be accurate with the implementation of intervention.
Flashlight down on an environment: ABC phenomenon -> antecedence, behavior and consequences.
ABC -> going to be used throughout the course.
Jimmy diagnose with autism, engage in certain type of behavior. You if not taken this class would think
about it differently. But as soon as u has understanding, we will see jimmy as this vulnerable individual
whose behavior can be changed by finding a possible relationship that can be extracted. We can then
intervene a positive change.
BM can be mostly used for children and adolescent with disabilities
We measure behavior before (baseline) the treatment, during the treatment and after the treatment.
We can affect somebody positively, but we wanna see if there is a long lasting effect .
No emphasis on the past, memories are faulty
We reject the underline causes of behavior- we can come up with all sort of inferences. Id, ego, and
superego these are the constructs made by Freud. This is explanatory fiction.
We are affected by other pple changes upon us. BM allows understanding from a full perspective.
Movies – clockwork orange & King speech are example of BM
Misconception about BM is that it relies on punishment. We try to change a behavior by method of
reinforcement, not to say that punishment is not used but it is last applicable approach used as a
Another misconception is it just ignores the symptoms and focus on behavior change. But this is not
true, BM also treat the symptoms.
Extrinsic motivation- doing something for external reward (opposite to intrinsic motivation).
Misconception is that BM takes away the natural inclination of doing a behavior by external reward but
that’s not true, the intrinsic motivation is not removed from the picture at all but in fact has a positive
effect. When treatment is done appropriately, pple are not part of those extrinsic motivations @ the end of
It does NOT take away natural human element and limited to inanimate objects. Some pple might argue
BM is used in so many diff areas.
Four key pple:
Ivan Pavlov- neurologist that found condition reflexes. His research involves looking @ gastric function.
He attach saliva pouch to dogs mouth. He found u can get the behavior to occur e.g dog was salivated
before food was put in front when the experimenter entered the room, this is mostly likely occurring
unconsciously. WE need to understand with clear scrutiny. He described it as condition reflexes;
nowadays we call it responding conditions or classical conditioning.
Thorndike- he was an amazing contributor to psychology, he outlines the law of effect (“behavior that
prod favorable effect on environment is going to be repeated in future”) . This might seems simple but
he was the first one to come up with this statement and an exp to prove that. He came up with operant
conditioning (consequence that is inflicted upon the individual based upon the action they do).
Responding condition is just inherent to situation. Operant cond is emendable to intervention. Ex. Cat
doesn’t want to be in a box. Thorndike has a lever attach to the surface of box and pressing it makes the
cat able to leave. He made the cat hungry and place food outside the box. Cat goes in box and sees a
dangling level and will care about that lever when t