LEC 5 Chapter 3
FR = fixed ratio scale
Two schedules of reinforcement: Ratio type or interval type.
With animals there is an interesting pattern in context of behavior with reinforcement. VI 20- variable
interval – every 20 min the response is reinforced.
Simplest one is fixed ratio. Reinforment occur after x amount of responses
Ex. Habituation- Once u been reinforcement that drive is going to go down.
Variable ratio- reinforcer delivered after a average of x number of responses. Produces high rate of
behavior, with no pause after reinforcement. VR 30- the response can come in 20 or 40 but the average
of reinforcement is same 30. The behavior is going to be very steady over time.
Fixed Interval- reinforcer delivered for the first response that occurs after a fixed interval of time.
Produces a low rate of behavior, with an on and off pattern. The response rate increases near the end of
intervals. There is post emotional pause. It is usually not chosen for a given behavior.
Variable Interval – reinforcer delivered for the first response that occurs after a variable interval of time.
Produces a steady low to moderate rate of behavior, with no on and off pattern.
IF your mom said you will get 10 dollar a week to do laundry that is reinforcing. This is positive
reinforcement. But you know if u didn’t do the assigned task, u will be yelled at by ur dad, then it is a
negative reinforcement (u trying to avoid aversive stimuli)
Schedule exist for two or more behavior that human being engages in.
Schedule of reinforcement- something is reinforced on variable ratio but not in fixed interval, thus there
is likely one behavior is more likely gonna occur than the others.
Magnitude of reinforcement- e.g money
Immediacy- the more quickly a reinforcer is delivered, more likely you are going to engage in it.
Extinction - An existing behavior which gets weaken due to lack of reinforcement
IT is supported by many applied research, is started by skinner and its establishment is well laid down.
Something that is already acquired is not being reinforced anymore, will become extinct. Ex: going up to wending machine, putting money in and nothing comes out. A signal in the envionrment
after the behavior is that don’t put in since it reduces ur recourses and there is no profit. Behavior
becomes weekend after first time and if it remains consistent , the behav