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Lec 8.docx

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Matthias Niemeier

Lec 8 Short answer : diff between global and local processing. See diff scenes easier at a global approach. At a global scale we see the whole scene all the general details How much detail, how far can see in the picture. We have difficulty with identifying specific changes. Details that are different, without paying attention you will have problems spotting them Selective attention: ignore others that are less important Attention is not arousal Models of attention: what level does attention play a role at? And how do we shift attention  early vs late selection: green boxes demonstrate what the rbain is doing. At first level there is sensory input then passed to sensory and perceptual analysis, then goes to high level areas of semantic reasoning and meaning then forward to function then comes up with a behave for sensory inputs followed by a response, motor muscle movements for ex. (flow of processing) -there are units that happen rather earlier to higher level that happens later -attention could play a role at one or the other level -attention is a mechanism of early selection, the retina has so much info its impossible to process everything (bottlenecks: too much info from the eye, more that we can process at the same time) that’s why we need early selection to focus on one aspect -propose that attention occurs on late selection, -attention is both, its multilevel filtering and includes both early and late processing  spotlight: illuminates certain area and that which is standing there will be brighter. Attention functions as a spotlight in which we can spot out of interest -whatever is in the spotlight will be picked up -confined to a spatially coherent region and can move from 1 point to the next (that’s y its also called search light)  zoom lense: starts then zooms in to focus on one region Problems with zoom and spotlight -pay attention to one person, then shift attention to another person, it jumps from one place to another -so in accordance to zoom it doesn’t gradually shift into focus, attention jumps from 1 to another, so it would be like a spotlight on one then turn off appears on next -attention can split into more than one focus -multiple object tracking: there must be multiple spotlights, you can track multiple obkjects that are moving around at the same time -attention can split into more than one focus -models explain somethings but not all  bias competition model: orients itself at physiological realities. Looks at what neurons are doing and how this relates to attention -we know that neurons are larger in v4, a single neuron will be activated by multiple stimulus -we have competition between diff species of sensory input, and it is in receptive fields there is overlap in terms of stimuli -there will be bias processing depending on saliency -attention control network that has blue arrows point in opposite direction top down influence, can decide which stimulus will go first and is based on representation of semantics -bias competition tries to illustrate how neural processes work by regulating bottom up and top down  premotor theory of attention: has to do with fact that eye movements and spatial fix of attention go hand in hand -rizolatti: proposed 1) strict link between orienting of attention (covert) and programming explicit ocular movements (overt) 2) occulomotor system is preparing saccadic eye movement and once your ready to make the eye movement that’s when attention shifts need to finish programming eye movement 3) program to put in place, superior colliculor gets command but u can inhibit it so the change of movement doesn’t take place -can you shift attention without moving your eyes? No its impossible to shift eyes without moving eyes, some attention resources have to shift. Deuble and Schneider did the study Study: they gave participants task to make eye movement, then to recognize digits, before make eye movement have 200ms to do something. While your about to make the movement you see a bunch of digits, have to identify numbers while fixating somewhere else -have to identify the numbers next to your saccade target -performance is better consistently so for the location to which they are about to make
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