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Lecture 6

PSYB64 LECTURE 6

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB64H3
Professor
Janelle Leboutillier
Semester
Fall

Description
PSYB64 Lecture 6 TEMPERATURE REGULATION, HUNGER AND THIRST HOMEOSTASIS -homeostasis is the physiological equilibrium of the body -set point for the body is 37 degrees Multiple Thermostats in the Body -hypothalamus holds the most sensitive one -brainstem holds next sensitive; has a bigger range for set temperature -spinal cord is least sensitive; large range of temperatures before putting in place the mechanisms to cause change -endotherms: produce our own body heat -ecotherms: “cold- blooded”; lizards, etc Surface to Volume Ratios Affect Temperature Regulation -smaller animals have a larger surface body- ratio; more difficult for them to maintain the core temperature, requires more effort How We Regulate: HOMEOSTASIS Deviations in Human Core Temperature -fever -heat stroke; elderly or younger children; the core temperature increases due to a failure to compensate -hypothermia; can be beneficial to people who are having cardiac arrest; decreases swelling in the brain & helps the heart slow & not need as much oxygen -blood vessels constrict & lose heat; people with Raynon’s disease have it to the extreme; white waxy like appearance of skin; fingers and toes go into spasms because of the lack of blood flow Brain Mechanisms Responsible for Temperature Regulation -pre- optic area and posterior hypothalamus -infancy regulation: rat babies continue moving their position to regulate heat (ie. centre of the litter, t the outside of the litter, then back in, etc) THIRST -thirst, in comparison to temperature, there are two types of fluid we need to think about -intra and extra cellular fluid -67% fluid is intracellular; 33% extracellular -interstitial fluid is the fluid between the cells Osmosis -causes water to move to keep water properly proportioned Sources of Intake and Loss of Fluids -foods can have fluids -intaking about 2.5 L of water each day -lose about 2.5 L each day; a balance Thirst: Regulation of the Body’s Fluid -osmotic thirst: an osmotic drop in the intracellular fluid -or hypovolemic thirst: result of a drop of blood volume -example: eating a bag of salty chips; osmotic thirst, too much salt, need more water to regulate -example: losing blood; car accident, being sick (vomiting); hypovolemic thirst Mechanisms of Osmotic Thirst -found in the OVLT Mechanisms of Hypovolemic Thirst -baroreceptors in the heart and the kidneys measuring blood pressure -kidneys will reserve any remaining fluids Regulation of Thirst -ADH; anti- diuretic hormone is released for both kinds of thirst -renin affects angiotensin; angiotensin II more important; angiotension II constricts blood vessels & sends a message to aldosterone that tells the kidneys to retain sodium Thirst & Sports Drinks -so, sodium helps to retain fluids -hyonatremia: sodium concentration is lower than normal -diabetes insipidus: abnormal functioning of ADH; water retention is not normal -high blood pressure: most people who take high blood pressure medication are
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