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Lecture 7

PSYB64 Lecture 7.docx

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Elizabeth Page- Gould

PSYB64 Lecture 7 sexual behavior 1. Sexual Development 2. Hormones & Sexual Behaviour 3. Sex Differences in Nervous System 4. Sexual Orientation 5. Attraction 6. Sexual Dysfunctions 1. SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT • Sexual chromosome abnormalities Turner syndrome (XO) Klinefelter syndrome (XXY) XYY • Sexual chromosome abnormalities Turner syndrome (XO) • Normal female external genitalia but ovaries develop abnormally • Normal intelligence, deficits in spatial relationships and memory Klinefelter syndrome (XXY) • Male with reduced fertility • Require hormone treatment at puberty to develop secondary sex characteristics and inhibit female characteristics • Normal intelligence but social awkwardness, delayed or reduced verbal skills • Occurs in 1 out of every 500 to 1000 male births XYY • Subtle physical and behavioral correlates • Controversial association with antisocial behavior Hormones and Sexual Behavior • YOU ARE NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR PAGES 294 to 300 EXCEPT TO THE EXTENT WE COVER THIS CONTENT IN LECTURE THE SYNTHESIS OF HUMAN SEX HORMONES Aromatization is the only step necessary to turn testosterone into estradiol HYPOTHALAMIC CONTROL OF THE PITUITARY GLAND 2. SEX AND SENSES ---------- HORMONES AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOR Sex Hormones and Female Behavior Sexual Interest in Human Females Report slightly more interest around ovulation Testosterone has greatest impact on women’s sexuality Estrogens and Cognition Best scores on spatial abilities tests when testosterone levels high and worst when estrogen levels are high Best scores on verbal abilities and manual dexterity tests when estrogen levels are high Sex influences cognition? Sex Hormones and Male Behavior Androgens and Competition Testosterone levels increase in anticipation of competition Androgens and Sexual Interest If in normal range, young men’s testosterone levels don’t predict sexual frequency Married men have lower testosterone than single or recently divorced men Androgens and Cognitive Behavior Spatial abilities advantage may be related to testosterone Male monkey’s preference of toys  Research by Kim Wallen, a psychologist shows that toy preference may be influenced by biology • Anabolic Steroids Synthetic versions of testosterone that build tissue Build strength and muscle mass and improve recovery time following muscle damage Significant side effects Acne Enlargement of clitoris or penis Lower voice Unusual hair loss or growth Psychological disturbances Larger breasts in males High blood pressure and kidney disease Effects of hormones and the environment on the brain (nature vs Nurture debate) 3. SEX DIFFERENCES IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM • Differences in the brains and nervous systems of males and females Sexually dimorphic structures Masculinization of the brain Sexually dimorphic structures Sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area Interstitial nuclei of the anterior hypothalamus Hypothalamus, thalamus, white matter Spinal cords of mammals Masculinization of the brain • Aromatization masculinizes brains of many animals • Testosterone is transformed into estradiol producing masculinization • Androgens play a greater role in the masculinization of the human brain 4. SEXUAL ORIENTATION • Hormones, Sexual Behavior, and Sexual Orientation Early exposure to androgens influences adult sexual behavior Development of structures not involved in sexual behavior often reflect the influence of prenatal hormone exposure Comparative size of ring and index finger of gay men • Brain Structure and Sexual Orientation LeVay – INAH-3 different between heterosexual and homosexual men? Two to three times larger in heterosexual men than homosexual men Interpretation of findings limited: INA
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