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Lecture 11

PSYB64 Lecture 11.docx

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Elizabeth Page- Gould

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PSYB64 Lecture 11 “Neurological disorders” Not responsible for • Seizures and Epilepsy Pg 436 - 438 • Brain infections Pg 440 - 446 Overview • Brain Damage • Multiple Sclerosis • Migraines • Assessment, Recovery and Therapy BRAIN DAMAGE 1. Stroke 2. Head injury 3. Brain tumor • Stroke Brain’s blood supply is interrupted by either bleeding or sudden blockage Cerebral hemorrhage May result from aneurysms, hypertension, structural deficits in blood vessels serving the brain, exposure to toxic chemicals etc Ischemia Blockage of blood vessels results in low oxygen levels Excitotoxicity Ablility of excess glutamate to kill cells Example of stroke: Brain infarct  When an area of the brain is deprived of oxygen for a sufficient amount of time, cells begin to die.  The area of dead tissue is referred to as an infarct.  In this image the patient suffered a fatal infarct in the right frontal lobe • Head Injury Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI) Open head injuries Concussions Coup and countercoup Post concussion syndrome – lack of concentration, reduction in processing speed, deficits in higher-order cognitive functions Example of Head injury: Coup and Countercoup Coup  an injury that occurs at the site of the blow. Countercoup  When the blow pushes the brain in the opposite direction,  a second area of injury occurs known as the countercoup Boxers Risk Repeated Head Injuries Chronic Traumatic Brain Injuries (CTBI) • Dementia pugilistica (Boxer’s syndrome) • Brain Tumors Majority arise in glial cells and the cells of the meninges Symptoms of Tumors Pressure in the skull Specific disruptions related to location Types of Tumors Gliomas and meningiomas Gliomas arise from glial cells Meningiomas arise within the tissues of the meninges Grades I to IV Example of brain tumor: a Meningioma  Typically benign  C
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