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PSYB65H3 (519)
Lecture 4

PSYB65 Lecture 4.pdf

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Zachariah Campbell

Lecture 4: Structural Neuroanatomy and Neuro-imaging Procedures Review of Structural Neuroanatomy • Diencephalon: • Hypothalamus- interacts with the pituitary gland; participates in nearly all aspects of motivated behaviour • Epithalamus- poorly understood; biorhythms, hunger, thirst • Thalamus- relays sensory information to appropriate targets; relays information between cortical areas; relays information between forebrain and brainstem • Forebrain: Three main features: • Basal Ganglia - collection of nuclei that includes ... - Putamen- outer part of the lentiform nucleus of the brain - Globus Pallidus- inner pale yellow part of the lenticular nucleus - Caudate Nucleus- upper of the two gray nuclei of the corpus striatum in the cerebrum of the brain -supports stimulus-response learning -functions in sequencing movements -Basal ganglia diseases are disorders of controlling movement, not producing movement • Limbic System (limbic lobe) - Amygdala -Hippocampus -Septum -Cingulate Cortex (cingulate gyrus) • Cerebral Cortex (also called Neocortex) -has expanded the most during evolution -comprises 80% of the human brain -six layers; two cerebral hemispheres, four lobes • Huntington’s Chorea (Basal Ganglia disease): • genetic disorder • cell death in the basal ganglia • involuntary “dance like” movements • Parkinson’s Disease (Basal Ganglia disease): • projection from the substania nigra to the basal ganglia dies • rhythmical tremors in hands and legs • rigid movement and difficulty maintaining balance • Tourette’s Syndrome: • yell out or make noises that doesn’t always make sense • motor functions • Fissures, Sulci, and Gyri: • Fissure- a cleft in the cortex that is deep enough to indent the ventricles • Sulci- a shallow cleft in the cortex • Gyri- a ridge in the cortex • Organization of the Cortex in Relation to its Inputs and Outputs: • Projection Map- map of the location of the inputs and outputs to the cortex • PrimaryAreas: -Frontal Lobe- motor functions -Parietal Lobe- body senses -Temporal Lobe- auditory functions -Occipital Lobe- visual functions • SecondaryAreas: -adjacent to primary areas -receive input from the primary areas -engaged in interpreting sensory input or organizing movements • TertiaryAreas (Association Cortex) -located between secondary areas -mediate complex activities • Cellular Organization of the Cortex: • Cytoarchitecture Map: -map based on the organization, structure, and distribution of cortical cells -Brodmann’s Map- most widely used cytoarchitecture map • Connections Between CorticalAreas: • Neocortical regions are connected by four types of axon projections -long connections between one lobe and another -relatively short connections between one part of a lobe and another -connections through the thalamus • The Crossed Brain: • Brain has contralateral organization -each
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