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PSYB65 Lecture 2.pdf

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Zachariah Campbell

1 Lecture 2: Evolution of the Human Brain and Behaviour • The History of Neuropsychology: • As the Roman Empire begins to dissolve, the DarkAges begin • Science was put on the back burner as religion increased culturally • DarkAges • Psychological questions were often the province of religion • 12th Century • cultural and economic revival • establishment of universities • prior to the Renaissance, there was a period of terrible strife • 15th and 16th Century • periods of exploration, discovery, artistic achievement • invention of Mass Printing • Guettenberg Bible • Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) • Astronomer • the place of human beings in the universe • heliocentric viewpoint vs. geocentric viewpoint • Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) • Astronomer • Dialogue on the Two Greatest Systems of the World, the Ptolemaic and the Copernican (1632) -hypothetical dialogue between two characters on the two different worlds [Ptolemaic and Copernican] • Character: Simplicio; put into book to represent geocentric viewpoint; made character look like a fool which angered the Vatican; name literally means “tongue and cheek” • 1633- Tried and found guilty by the Vatican • avoided torture through indefinite house arrest and became almost totally blind • 1992- Pope John Paul II acknowledged that the Vatican had erred in convicting Galileo • utilized method of manipulating and measuring variables • advocate for freedom of inquiry • William Harvey (1578-1657) • physician and scientist • function of the heart- heart isn’t necessarily responsible for some functions of the body, it’s actually the brain • Rene Descartes (1596-1650) • Theory for the Presence of Mind • Language Test;Action Test • Negative outcome- treatment of children, animals, mentally ill; didn’t use aesthetic because believed animals couldn’t feel pain, the noise animals make is actually mechanical, a natural response => common belief • Evolution of the Human Brain & Behaviour: • Origins of the Human Brain and Behaviour 2 • Cladogram- graph that illustrates the relative time of origin of various closely related groups • Primate Order: • excellent colour vision, enhanced depth perception • hand-eye coordination • females produce one infant per pregnancy • Hominids: • humanlike ancestors that diverged from the ape lineage • changes in hand structure and brain structure • Species Comparison: • Why study Nonhuman Animals? • brain similarities and differences in humans and animals provides insight to brain- behaviour relationships • animals have less complex anatomy- complexity of brain especially • genetic basis of behavioral can be studied in animals with short lifespans (i.e. fruit flies), unlike humans who produce usually 1 offspring per gestation period in comparison to rats or mice with litters of pups • identify how the brain has evolved • QuestionsAddressed by Studying NonhumanAnimals • Understanding brain mechanisms • uses cross species comparisons to understand basic brain function for a given behaviour • Designing animal models of human neurological disorders • researchers produce a human neurological disorder in an animal • cause and treatment for the disease can be examined through manipulation of variables • Describing the phylogenetic development of the brain • looks at animals in their environments to see how the environment shapes evolution of the brain and behaviour • makes comparisons between humans and other mammals • differences in brains and behaviors provide insight into how those differences appeared • if adaptations didn’t appear, it means the animal didn’t need it to survive in its environment • Human Origins: • Hominid Evolution • evolution is not linear • humans today are the only surviving member of the hominid branch • Human Evolution • studied through archeological, biochemical and genetic, and behavioral evidence • Human Evolution:Archeological Research • examine the bones, skulls, and habitat of hominids to reconstruct features of their brains and behaviors • Human Evolution: Biochemical and Genetic Research: • examines the amino acid sequence of a cellular protein in different species to determine when species diverged from each other (determine ancestors and ancestral line) 3 • relatedness of species can be determined by comparing their deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) =>humans and chimps have 99% of their genes in common • Human Evolution: Behavioral Research • compares behaviour of one species to another species • Jane Goodall- observed behaviour in chimpanzees; found strikingly similar behaviour in chimpanzees and humans • Stages of Human Evolution: • Four steps • an upright posture in which hands were free • extensive tool use • a traveling life style • an elaborate culture • Australopithecus: Upright Posture • discovered by Raymond Dart • lived in easternAfrica • walked upright • “East Side Theory” • Yves Coppens • Pro
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