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Canada (510,873)
Psychology (7,812)
PSYB65H3 (519)
Lecture 5

PSYB65 Lecture 5.pdf

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Zachariah Campbell

PSYB65 Course Notes 1 Lecture 5: Neuroimaging Procedures • Magnetoencephalography (MEG): • exploits the relationship between electrical fields or signals and magnetic fields =>have an impact on each other • captures the changes in magnetic fields in the brain • new technology; records magnetic fields of neurons • permits 3D localization of the cell groups generating the magnetic field • Pro= High resolution, better depth; Con= expensive • produces an isocontour map =>shows the surface of the brain • Brain Stimulation: • electrical current is used to stimulate brain tissue • Intracranial Brain Stimulation... • Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) • electrodes implanted in the brain to stimulate the tissue • used as a treatment for Parkinson’s disease • Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)... • Stimulation of the brain using a magnetic stimulator =>creates a magnetic field or disturbance around the brain • has an impact on the electric activity of the cells beneath the cortex • Magnetic stimulator- small wire coil in the shape of a figure 8 • Noninvasive • Can be used to map functional regions of the brain • X-Ray Imaging Techniques: • first methods for imaging the brain • produces static 2D image of the brain • everything squished together =>layers of the brain not differentiated • now only used when looking for the largest obstruction in the brain • Conventionally Radiography: • passing X-rays through the skulls onto an X-ray sensitive film • different types of tissue absorb the rays to different degrees producing an image that shows the tissue location • still used for examining the skull for fractures and looking for gross brain abnormalities • Pneumoencephalography: • small amount of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is removed from the subarachnoid space and replaced by air • X-rays are taken as the air moves upward and into the ventricles • ventricles stand out in the image due to air • painful =>pain at injection site (air going through blood vessels) and pressure on the brain • currently, not used much • Angiography: • substance that absorbs X-rays is injected into the bloodstreams • produces an excellent image of the blood vessels PSYB65 Course Notes 2 • can be dangerous and painful • Computerized Tomography (CT scan): • passes narrow x-ray beams through the brain at different angles to great different images and then combines the images to create a 3D image of the brain • cannot discriminate between gray and white matter • ventricles and major fissures can be seen • Functional Brain Imaging: • provides a way to look at the brain without using dangerous or unpleasant procedures • Positron Emission Tomography (PET): • radioactive molecules injected into the bloodstream or inhaled =>perfused into the br
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